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\   STUDIA     IN 





Methodist  Episcopal 
Church,  South 


Sara  Estelle  Haskin 

Educational  Secretary ,  Woman's  Missionary 
Council,  M.  E.  Church,  South 

Nashville,  Term." 

Dallas,  Tex.;  Richmond,  Va. 

Publishing  House  of  the  M.  E.  Church,  South 

Smith  &  Lamar,  Agents 






The  Missionaries  and  Deaconesses  who  have  stood  in  the 

front  of  the  battle  line  this  book  is  lovingly 

and  gratefully  dedicated 


IN  the  following  pages  the  author  has  set 
forth  merely  the  outstanding  facts  in  the  his 
tory  of  the  organized  woman's  missionary 
work  in  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church, 
South.  The  great  underlying  purpose,  how 
ever,  has  been  to  state  these  facts  in  such  a 
way  that  they  themselves  will  tell  the  story  of 
God's  marvelous  leading  through  the  years. 

The  vision  of  service  came  first  to  a  small 
group  of  women  without  means,  without  ex 
perience,  and  with  no  authorized  channel 
through  which  to  work;  but  in  less  than  fifty 
years  their  prayers  and  their  small  efforts  had 
resulted  in  the  enlistment  of  over  two  hundred 
thousand  women  and  children  in  the  auxiliaries 
of  the  Woman's  Missionary  Society.  The  ap 
peal  of  one  small  school  in  China  and  the  cry 
of  distress  sent  out  in  behalf  of  the  poorly 
paid  preachers  on  the  frontier  resulted  in  an 
organization  which  in  1920  was  conducting 
well-equipped  schools  and  social-evangelistic 
centers  in  the  homeland  and  in  seven  foreign 
mission  fields. 



The  work  in  the  homeland  and  that  in  the 
foreign  fields  began  through  separate  organ 
izations,  but  as  the  years  passed  the  vision 
broadened  until  the  world  became  one  great 
mission  field  for  which  every  auxiliary  member 
was  personally  responsible.  The  result  was 
the  merging  of  the  two  societies  and  a  united 
effort  in  prayer  and  giving. 

It  is  the  earnest  hope  of  the  author  that  this 
story  may  fill  the  heart  of  every  woman  who 
reads  it  with  gratitude  to  God  for  the  great 
pioneer  women  who  have  made  it  possible  for 
us  of  the  present  day  to  enter  into  our  won 
derful  heritage  of  world-wide  service. 

The  story  of  the  work  as  told  in  these  pages 
has  been  gathered  from  the  following  sources : 
The  Annual  Reports  of  the  Woman's  Foreign 
Missionary  Society ;  the  Annual  Reports  of  the 
Woman's  Home  Mission  Society;  the  Annual 
Reports  of  the  Woman's  Missionary  Council ; 
the  "History  of  the  Woman's  Foreign  Mis 
sionary  Society,"  by  Mrs.  F.  A.  Butler;  the 
"Life  of  Miss  Lucinda  B.  Helm,"  by  Mrs. 
Gross  Alexander;  and  "A  Decade  of  Mission 
Life,"  by  Miss  Nannie  E.  Holding;  also 
pamphlets  entitled  "The  Story  of  the  Years," 
bv  Mrs.  R.  W.  MacDonell,  Mrs.  F.  H.  E.  Ross, 


Mrs.  J.  B.  Cobb,  Miss  Maria  Layng  Gibson, 
and  Miss  Maude  Bonnell.  From  these  last, 
entire  sections  have  been  occasionally  em 

Grateful  acknowledgment  is  hereby  made  to 
my  friends  Miss  Belle  H.  Bennett,  Miss 
Maria  Layng  Gibson,  and  Mrs.  R.  W.  Mac- 
Donell,  who,  from  the  knowledge  gained  by 
their  years  of  experience,  have  rendered  most 
valuable  assistance.  Thanks  are  also  due  to 
those  of  my  associate  workers  who  have  read 
the  manuscript  and  rendered  helpful  and  sym 
pathetic  criticism.  S.  E.  H. 



I.  Banding  together  for  Service 13 


II.  The  First  Mission  Fields 43 

V-III.  Lighting  the  Torch  in  Korea 75 

IV.  Another  Call 95 



V.  Another  Challenge  to  Faith 109 

VI.  Answering  a   Neighbor's   Need 134 

VII.  A  New  Campaign 161 

VIII.  Occupying  a  Waiting  Field —   167 


IX.  Answering  the  Home  Call 177 

X.  A  Work  of  Social  Evangelism 199 



XL  Scarritt  Bible  and  Training  School 231 




When  you  pray  the  Lord's  Prayer,  for  what  do  you 
pray?  For  my  daily  bread,  forgiveness  of  my  sins? 
Have  you  shut  the  door  to  shut  the  world  out  and  be 
alone  with  God?  But  Jesus  taught  us  to  pray  "Our 
Father."  It  is  a  collective  prayer.  With  the  first  word 
it  is  no  longer  an  experience  of  the  soul  alone  with 
God — the  thronging  hosts  of  humanity  are  present  in 
the  room.  The  need  of  others  for  bread  takes  place 
alongside  of  our  hunger ;  the  passionate  desires  of 
others  to  be  released  from  the  pressure  of  evil  stand 
beside  our  desire  to  be  forgiven  for  our  sins.  It  is  a 
prayer  of  humanity  for  humanity  and  for  the  individual 
only  as  a  part  of  humanity. — From  "Christianising 
Community  Life,"  by  Ward-Edwards. 



THE  heroic  women  who  laid  the  founda 
tions  of  the  woman's  missionary  work  in  the 
Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  South,  were  pio 
neers  in  the  faith,  leading  the  generations  to 
follow  into  fields  of  service  and  conquest.  As 
is  always  true  in  any  great  enterprise,  the  be 
ginnings  of  their  work  can  be  traced  back  to  a 
vision  and  purpose  born  in  the  hearts  of  a  few 
chosen  of  God. 

The  First  Auxiliary. 

The  earliest  authentic  record  indicates  that 
the  first  effort  to  organize  and  project  in  the 
South  any  form  of  missionary  work  for  wom 
en  was  undertaken  in  1858  by  Mrs.  M.  L.  Kel- 
ley.  She  was  the  wife  of  an  itinerant  preacher, 
the  Rev.  John  Kelley,  at  that  time  located  at 
Bethlehem,  Tenn.,  Lebanon  Circuit.  The  rec 
ords  show  that  a  missionary  society  was  or 
ganized  and  aid  sent  to  Mrs.  J.  W.  Lambuth 
for  the  maintenance  of  a  school  she  was  con- 



ducting  in  Shanghai,  China.  Two  years  later 
the  Civil  War  broke  out,  and  this  initial  ef 
fort  seemed  lost  in  the  great  catastrophe  that 
followed.  But  the  missionary  zeal  in  the 
heart  of  this  woman  could  not  be  quenched, 
for  after  fourteen  years  had  passed  we  find 
her  living  in  Nashville,  Tenn.,  and  with  re 
newed  effort  seeking  to  make  her  vision  of 
service  a  reality.  Her  son,  Rev.  D.  C.  Kelley, 
D.D.,  says  in  speaking  of  this  new  society: 
"In  the  fall  of  1872  the  work  of  canvassing 
had  begun.  A  good  deal  of  private  effort  had 
been  made,  and  meetings  had  been  called  in 
the  various  churches  of  the  city.  The  first 
meeting  of  the  women  \vas  on  a  cold  day  in 
November,  1873.  The  picture  is  still  vivid  of 
the  four  women  who  that  day  came  together, 
the  result  of  much  personal  effort  by  Mrs.  Kel 
ley  and  repeated  notices  from  the  pulpit  by 
the  pastor  of  McKendree  Church.  They  sat 
on  the  ends  of  the  four  pews  nearest  the  reg 
ister  on  the  western  side  of  old  McKendree 
Church.  As  Mrs.  Kelley  sat  with  the  list  of 
names  she  had  obtained,  waiting,  all  seemed 
hopeless.  The  pastor,  Dr.  Kelley,  entered  the 
church  and  said:  'Organize  your  society  just 
as  if  the  house  were  filled.'  Her  heart  was 
warmed,  and  she  knelt  in  prayer.  This  so- 


ciety  took  up  the  same  work  in  which  the 
original  society  had  been  engaged:  aid  to  Mrs. 
Lambuth's  school  in  Shanghai." 

Mrs.  D.  H.  McGavock  says  of  this  meet 
ing,  which  has  since  come  to  be  of  such  large 
import:  "After  much  thought  and  prayer,  a 
day  was  appointed  by  Mrs.  Kelley  to  meet  the 
women  of  the  Church  and  bring  the  subject 
before  them.  When  the  day  came  the  ele 
ments  of  earth,  air,  and  sky  all  seemed  to  cast 
a  shadow  over  the  effort.  As  the  wind  whirled 
and  the  rain  poured,  the  disappointed  mother 
of  the  movement  stood  at  a  window  of  her 
dwelling  watching  the  storm.  As  the  clouds 
emptied  their  floods  the  tears  flowed  from  her 
eyes  on  her  pale  cheeks,  but  her  faith  never 
wavered  and  her  resolve  to  carry  on  this 
work  did  not  for  a  moment  falter.  Entering 
her  strong  tower  of  prayer,  she  committed  the 
whole  cause  to  her  Heavenly  Father  without 
a  moment's  fear  of  the  result." 

After  months  of  delay  another  effort  was 
made,  and  at  last  the  desire  of  the  years  began 
to  take  form.  In  April,  1874,  the  Woman's  Bi 
ble  Mission  of  Nashville  was  organized,  with 
the  following  officers :  Mrs.  M.  L.  Kelley,  Pres 
ident;  Mrs.  D.  H.  McGavock,  Corresponding 
Secretary;  Miss  Lucie  Ross,  Recording  Secre- 


tary;  and  Mrs.  T.  D.  Fite,  Treasurer.  A  vice 
president  and  managers,  one  from  each  of  the 
different  Churches  in  the  city,  were  also  elect 
ed.  The  society  had  two  distinct  objects — 
namely,  "To  send  pecuniary  aid  to  the  foreign 
mission  fields  and  to  employ  efficiently  the 
women  at  home  in  a  systematic  visitation  and 
Bible  instruction  of  the  poor  and  destitute  in 
their  own  midst." 

This  new  society  thus  kept  in  mind  the  local 
work  and  revived  that  which  had  been  begun 
on  the  Lebanon  Circuit — namely,  the  support 
of  Mrs.  Lambuth's  work  in  China. 

In  1875  Rev.  and  Mrs.  J.  W.  Lambuth  vis 
ited  the  United  States,  and  in  their  tour  of  the 
home  Churches  spoke  in  McKendree  Church. 
Mrs.  McGavock  was  so  stirred  by  their  mes 
sages  concerning  the  needs  of  China  that  under 
a  strict  pledge  of  secrecy  she  was  moved  to 
give  to  Mrs.  Lambuth  the  diamonds  which  had 
pinned  her  wedding  veil.  The  funds  from 
their  sale  purchased  a  new  building  for  the 
school  in  Shanghai,  which  was  called  the  Clop- 
ton  School,  thus  honoring  Mrs.  McGavock's 
mother,  whose  maiden  name  was  Clopton. 

Work  Begun  in  Baltimore. 
A  few  years  prior  to  the  organization  of 


the  Nashville  auxiliary,  Mrs,  Juliana  Hayes 
had  begun  work  in  Trinity  Church,  Baltimore, 
forming  a  society  called  the  Trinity  Home 
Mission.  In  1873,  however,  having  heard 
Mrs.  Lambuth's  call  for  aid  in  China,  the  so 
ciety  changed  its  name  to  the  Woman's  Bible 
Mission,  which  embraced  in  its  efforts  the 
work  of  foreign  missions.  Through  the  in 
fluence  of  Mrs.  Hayes  this  organization  soon 
led  to  the  forming  of  other  societies  in  that 
vicinity.  In  April,  1873,  one  hundred  dollars 
was  sent  to  Mrs.  Lambuth  from  seven  auxili 
aries  of  Baltimore.  This  fund  was  applied  to 
the  support  of  a  Bible  woman,  the  daughter- 
in-law  of  the  Bible  woman  who  had  years  be 
fore  received  support  from  the  first  auxiliary 
on  the  Lebanon  Circuit.  The  contributions 
from  the  Baltimore  society  from  1873  to  1878 
amounted  to  $1,011.50. 

A  Connectional  Missionary  Society. 

Correspondence  was  carried  on  between  the 
officers  of  the  Baltimore  and  Nashville  socie 
ties,  and  here  and  there  throughout  the  Church 
missionary  fires  began  to  burn.  The  result 
was  that  there  came  into  the  mind  and  heart 
of  Mrs.  McGavock  the  thought  of  the  possi 
bility  of  a  connectional  missionary  society. 



She  prepared  a  memorial  to  the  General  Con 
ference  in  18/4  asking  for  authority  to  organ 
ize  a  woman's  department  of  missions.  The 
request  was  referred  to  the  Committee  on  Mis 
sions  and  was  never  heard  from  again. 

This  failure  increased  the  determination  of 
the  women  to  push  forward  in  the  work  that 
they  knew  so  well  God  was  calling  them  to  do. 
Soon  afterwards  their  first  leader,  Mrs.  Kelley, 
was  called  to  her  reward,  but  the  women  did 
not  flag  in  their  efforts.  Mrs.  Butler  says: 
"Mrs.  McGavock  took  advantage  of  every 
opening  and  of  every  concurring  thought  to 
push  forward  this  new  phase  of  missionary 
work.  She  opened  correspondence  with  all  of 
the  prominent  ministers  and  members  of  the 
Church,  both  men  and  women,  whose  names 
and  addresses  she  could  obtain ;  and  some  who 
were  prominent  in  other  denominations  were 
liberal  contributors,  supporting  boys  and  girls 
in  Mrs.  Lambuth's  school.  But  now  the 
thought  of  sending  a  young  wroman  to  China 
to  be  supported  by  the  women  at  home  began 
to  assume  a  shade  of  importance  and  a  tone 
of  probability." 

A  writer  in  the  Christian  Advocate  asked 
this  pertinent  question:  "What  have  we  for 
Christian  women  to  do?" 


A  few  weeks  later  Mrs.  McGavock  answered 
in  the  following  words:  "The  Methodist  Epis 
copal  Church,  South,  seems  to  be  waking  up 
to  the  fact  that  women  are  both  able  and  will 
ing  to  render  effective  service  in  evangelizing 
the  world.  Almost  every  week  letters  come 
from  women  in  different  States  asking  for  in 
formation  in  reference  to  organizing  societies, 
the  best  objects  on  which  to  expend  funds  al 
ready  collected,  and  the  channel  through  which 
such  funds  should  be  sent.  The  women  of  our 
beloved  Church  are  aroused ;  united  effort,  con 
cert  of  action  is  all  that  is  lacking  in  the  wom 
en  of  Southern  Methodism.  They  are  willing, 
generous,  and  vitally  spiritual ;  but  they  stand 
aloof  from  this  duty,  each  waiting  for  the 
other  to  lead,  to  suggest  and  adopt  plans  that 
will  advance  this  movement.  The  heart-stir 
ring  letters  from  Bishop  Marvin  and  Dr.  Hen- 
drix  in  the  East  have  aroused  the  missionary 
pulse  to  healthy  action.  Herein  will  lie  the 
secret  of  success.  Every  circuit  and  station 
should  have  an  auxiliary  society,  and  every 
woman  and  child  should  give  something  an 
nually  and  send  their  contributions  to  a  given 
center;  then  reports  should  be  sent  and  pub 
lished  that  all  might  know  the  amounts, 
sources,  and  the  direction  given  to  the  funds." 


This  shows  that  the  whole  plan  was  mapped 
out  very  clearly  in  the  minds  of  these  leaders. 

Mrs.  Hayes  was  untiring  in  her  efforts  to 
interest  all  with  whom  she  came  in  touch,  and 
the  new  undertaking  was  pushed  with  en 
thusiasm  and  unflagging  zeal. 

In  the  year  1877  the  first  woman,  in  the 
person  of  Miss  Lochie  Rankin,  offered  her 
self  for  missionary  service.  This  gave  re 
newed  enthusiasm  and  another  tangible  reason 
for  pushing  the  woman's  missionary  cause 
before  the  General  Conference,  which  was  to 
meet  the  following  year  in  Atlanta,  Ga. 

At  that  meeting  Dr.  D.  C.  Kelley,  then  the 
Assistant  Secretary  of  the  Board  of  Missions, 
in  report  No.  4  of  the  Committee  on  Missions, 
recommended  that  the  women  of  the  Church 
be  authorized  to  organize  missionary  work 
under  a  constitution.  The  need  of  the  field 
was  so  evident  and  the  ability  of  the  women 
to  help  meet  it  so  apparent  that,  at  last,  the 
shackles  of  conservatism  were  sufficiently 
loosed  to  make  possible  the  unanimous  adoption 
of  the  report.  Then  followed  the  organiza 
tion  of  the  Woman's  General  Executive  As 

On  May  23,  1878,  at  10  A.M.,  in  the  First 
Church  in  Atlanta  a  convention  of  women 


was  held,  and  fifty-four  names  were  enrolled 
as  members.  The  College  of  Bishops  appoint 
ed  the  officers  and  twenty-three  women,  living 
in  different  sections  of  the  South,  as  man 
agers.  Mrs.  Juliana  Hayes,  of  Baltimore, 
was  President;  the  wives  of  the  bishops,  eight 
in  all,  were  Vice  Presidents;  Mrs.  D.  H.  Mc- 
Gavock,  of  Nashville,  Tenn.,  Corresponding 
Secretary;  and  Mrs.  James  Whitworth,  of 
Nashville,  Tenn.,  Treasurer. 

In  1882,  by  action  of  the  General  Confer 
ence,  the  name  of  the  General  Executive  As 
sociation  was  changed  to  the  Woman's  Board 
of  Missions.  Later  the  word  "foreign"  was 

Annual  Meetings. 

The  first  annual  meeting  of  the  General  Ex 
ecutive  Association  was  held  in  the  Broadway 
Church,  Louisville,  Ky.,  May  16,  17,  1879. 
The  reports  at  that  time  gave  evidence  of  the 
untiring  service  of  love  that  was  given  in  that 
initial  year  of  organized  service.  The  Confer 
ence  societies  numbered  fifteen,  while  the  aux 
iliaries  were  two  hundred  and  eighteen.  The 
membership  enrolled  had  reached  5,890  and 
the  money  reported  amounted  to  $4,014.37. 
Miss  Lochie  Rankin,  of  Shanghai,  China,  six 


Bible  women,  and  the  Clopton  School  had  that 
year  received  support. 

The  next  annual  meeting  was  held  in  Nash 
ville,  Tenn.,  and  it  was  found  that  in  the  sec 
ond  year  of  the  organization  the  Conference 
societies  had  grown  from  fifteen  to  twenty- 
two,  with  four  hundred  and  seventy-five  auxili 
aries  and  12,548  members. 

Probably  the  most  far-reaching  plan  made  at 
this  meeting  was  the  decision  to  publish  a  mis 
sionary  magazine  to  be  called  the  Woman's 
Missionary  Advocate.  Mrs.  F.  A.  Butler  was 
elected  editor  and  continued  in  that  office  until 
the  home  and  foreign  societies  were  merged. 
In  the  seventh  Annual  Report  we  read:  "It  [the 
Missionary  Advocate]  is  a  live  organ,  and  the 
woman  who  edits  it  and  the  ten  thousand  who 
read  it  are  wide-awake.  From  the  first  it  has 
vindicated  its  right  to  be  our  paper,  has  justi 
fied  our  faith  in  its  success,  and  beautifully  il 
lustrated  our  happy  choice  of  its  editor.  It  is 
the  bond  of  union  between  the  Conference  so 
cieties — a  living,  pulsating  bond."  These 
words  continued  to  characterize  the  magazine 
throughout  its  lifetime. 

After  the  First  Twenty  Years. 
In    1895   the  annual  meeting  was  held   in 


Meridian,  Miss.,  and  neither  the  president  nor 
the  corresponding  secretary  was  able  to  be 
present.  Mrs.  Butler,  in  her  "History  of  the 
Woman's  Foreign  Missionary  Society,"  says: 
"In  less  than  one  month  after  this  meeting  the 
sad  news  came  that  the  revered  president  had 
passed  away  and  entered  into  the  life  more 
abundant.  Mrs.  Juliana  Hayes  died  on  the 
second  day  of  June,  1895.  She  was  a  woman 
of  marvelous  power.  While  president  of  the 
society,  in  building  up  the  work,  she  created 
an  interest  in  it  wherever  she  traveled  or  was 
heard  to  speak  and  invariably  brought  to  the 
subject  a  perennial  freshness  and  enthusiasm. 

"The  health  of  the  Corresponding  Secre 
tary,  Mrs.  McGavock,  was  also  distressingly 
precarious,  and  the  end  seemed  to  be  approach 
ing  stealthily,  but  most  surely.  Late  in  Sep 
tember,  1895,  sne  called  a  meeting  of  the  local 
Board  to  be  held  in  her  own  chamber ;  the  busi 
ness  was  presented,  and  then,  when  scarcely 
able  to  hold  a  pen,  she  signed  papers  giving 
the  power  of  attorney  to  the  Secretary  of 
Home  Affairs,  Mrs.  S.  C.  Trueheart,  saying: 
This  is  my  last  official  act.'  " 

After  twenty  years  of  pioneer  work  these 
leaders  were  called  away,  but  there  were  those 
ready  to  take  their  places  who  had  been  inter- 


ested  from  the  very  beginning.  Mrs.  True- 
heart  was  elected  to  fill  the  place  of  corre 
sponding  secretary.  She  had  already  served 
with  Mrs.  McGavock  as  promoter  of  the  home 
base,  so  was  eminently  fitted  to  carry  on  the 
work.  In  an  editorial  of  the  September  Mis 
sionary  Voice  of  1912  her  work  and  spirit  are 
characterized  in  the  following  words:  "The 
marked  success  of  the  missionary  enterprise  of 
the  Church  is  due  in  large  measure  to  Mrs. 
Trueheart's  knowledge  of  the  work  both  at 
home  and  in  the  foreign  fields;  to  her  calm 
judgment,  wise  leadership,  wonderful  insight 
into  character,  and  deep  love  of  the  mission 
field."  Miss  Belle  Bennett  says  of  her:  "As 
an  officer  and  a  member  of  the  Woman's 
Board  of  Missions  and,  after  the  death  of 
Mrs.  McGavock,  as  General  Secretary,  she  did 
more  to  frame  the  policy  and  secure  the  enact 
ment  of  laws  than  any  other  one  woman  in 
the  work." 

Upon  the  death  of  Mrs.  Hayes,  Mrs.  Wight- 
man  was  elected  to  the  presidency  of  the  Wom 
an's  Board  of  Foreign  Missions.  She  served 
until  1906,  at  which  time  she  resigned  on  ac 
count  of  failing  health.  Throughout  these 
years  she  gave  voluntary  service  unsparingly. 
Her  power  and  influence  is  expressed  in  the 


words  of  Mrs.  R.  E.  Stackhouse:  "For  many 
years  she  bore  unceasingly  the  toils  arid  trials 
incident  to  pioneer  work,  for  the  Church  had  to 
be  won  to  the  cause  of  woman's  work.  She 
met  barriers  that  would  have  made  a  weaker 
vessel  falter.  In  her  presence  all  apathy  to  the 
work  of  sending  the  gospel  to  heathen  nations 
vanished.  Her  enthusiasm  was  contagious; 
assemblies  addressed  by  her  caught  the  inspira 
tion  of  her  mighty  faith,  were  lifted  to  higher 
ground,  moved  to  give  themselves  under  the 
inspiration  of  her  sanctifying  influence." 

Miss  M.  L.  Gibson,  who  had  been  serving 
for  a  number  of  years  as  vice  president,  was 
elected  to  the  presidency  upon  the  retirement 
of  Mrs.  Wightman.  In  this  capacity  she  con 
tinued  to  serve  until  the  union  of  the  boards  in 


It  will  be  recalled  that  the  first  auxiliaries 
embraced  in  their  work  ministry  at  home, 
and  that  this  service  soon  became  overshad 
owed  by  the  appalling  need  in  the  foreign 
field.  The  vision  of  the  world  as  one  great 
field  to  be  conquered  for  Christ  had  not  yet 
been  grasped,  and  thus  it  was  that  God  must 
seek  in  other  directions  for  the  embodiment 
of  service  at  home. 


A  Leader  Called. 

The  home  work  took  form  first  through  the 
vision  of  Miss  Lucinda  B.  Helm.  In  speak 
ing  of  her  burning  desire  for  service  in  this 
field,  she  says:  "I  felt  as  if  some  propelling 
power  beyond  me  had  entered  my  soul  and  was 
moving  me  with  an  irresistible  force  to  throw 
my  life  into  this  work  of  helping  to  redeem  my 
country  from  the  enemy  of  souls  and  to  es 
tablish  the  kingdom  of  the  Lord." 

Bishop  Hargrove,  in  his  work  in  the  West, 
had  been  compelled  to  leave  several  charges 
without  appointments  because  there  were  no 
parsonages  in  which  the  preachers  could  live. 
To  meet  this  need  the  men  at  the  head  of  the 
Board  of  Church  Extension  began  to  look  to 
the  women  of  the  Church  for  aid  in  building 
these  homes,  and  Miss  Helm  was  asked  to 
formulate  a  plan  for  woman's  work  and  to 
write  a  constitution  and  by-laws.  In  this  plan 
she  included  local  home  mission  work.  When 
it  was  submitted  to  the  Board  of  Church  Ex 
tension  they  prepared  a  memorial  to  the  Gen 
eral  Conference  which  read  as  follows: 
"Whereas  there  is  great  lack  of  parsonages  in 
the  weaker  charges  and  throughout  the 
Church,  and  whereas  there  is  no  organized 
agency  to  supply  this  demand  which  appeals 


so  directly  and  so  strongly  to  the  Christian  en 
deavor  of  woman,  whose  special  realm  is  the 
home,  the  Board  of  Church  Extension  believes 
that  it  is  expedient  that  the  General  Confer 
ence  provide  for  a  Woman's  Department  of 
Church  Extension  having  specific  reference  to 
the  supply  of  parsonages  for  itinerant  preach 
ers,  and  ask  the  body  so  to  do." 

The  Woman's  Department  of  Church  Exten 

The  provision  which  the  General  Conference 
finally  made  for  the  woman's  work  reads  as 
follows:  "The  Board  of  Church  Extension 
shall  organize  a  department  to  be  known  as 
the  Woman's  Department  of  Church  Exten 
sion,  the  object  of  which  shall  be  to  collect 
funds  for  purchasing  and  securing  parsonages. 
All  funds  so  collected  shall  be  subject  to  the 
direction  of  the  local  boards  of  Church  Ex 
tension  for  the  objects  specified."  It  will  be 
noted  that  the  work  of  the  women  was  confined 
strictly  within  the  limits  of  parsonage  building 
and  that  it  resolved  itself  merely  into  the  col 
lection  of  funds  for  that  purpose.  It  was  the 
beginning,  however,  of  larger  things  for  the 

At  a  meeting  of  the  Board  of  Church  Ex- 


tension  on  May  21,  1886,  Miss  Luanda  B. 
Helm  was  elected  General  Secretary  of  the 
Woman's  Department  of  Church  Extension. 
In  her  second  annual  report  she  says:  "Twen 
ty-four  thousand  leaflets  have  been  distributed. 
The  woman's  work  has  been  kept  before  the 
public  through  the  various  Church  papers  and 
earnestly  presented  to  individuals  by  personal 
letters.  In  response  to  our  efforts,  214  socie 
ties  have  been  organized,  reporting  3,529  mem 
bers.  The  children  are  reported  effectively  at 
work  in  sixty-one  places.  The  financial  report 
is  most  encouraging.  The  benefit  that  our  so 
cieties  have  been  to  the  local  work  is  shown 
in  the  report  of  171  added  to  Sabbath  schools 
and  a  large  sum  of  special  donations  reported 
as  raised  for  local  work,  which  amounted  to 
$4,579.09.  This  was  raised  by  extra  efforts 
outside  their  dues.  We  have  endeavored 
through  our  societies  to  foster  spirituality  and 
urge  greater  personal  effort  on  the  part  of  our 
women  and  children  to  be  missionaries  at 
home  and  give  the  comforts  and  saving  grace 
of  the  gospel  to  those  around  them." 

In  addition  to  the  work  done  at  her  desk, 
Miss  Helm  traveled  over  the  Church  organ 
izing  societies,  all  without  remuneration.  The 


Board  wished  to  appropriate  money  for  her 
salary,  but  she  refused  to  accept  it. 

The  Woman's  Parsonage  and  Home  Mission 

As  she  went  from  place  to  place  she  ob 
served  that  societies  for  local  work  were 
springing  up  everywhere,  and  in  some  places 
the  women  were  beginning  to  awaken  to  the 
need  of  a  connectional  home  mission  society. 
As  a  consequence,  Miss  Helm  resolved  to  pre 
sent  to  the  coming  General  Conference  of  1890 
a  request  for  authorization  to  add  the  work  of 
home  missions  to  that  of  parsonage  building. 
Even  her  stanchest  friends  opposed  her,  say 
ing  that  the  parsonage  society  was  still  young 
and  that  the  Church  was  not  yet  ready  for 
such  activities  among  the  women.  It  was  also 
stoutly  maintained  that  the  organization  of 
home  mission  societies  would  hinder  the  work 
of  the  foreign  mission  society.  Miss  Helm, 
however,  answered  all  of  these  objections  so 
forcefully  and  was  so  successful  in  arousing 
the  interest  of  the  leading  men  and  women  of 
the  Church  that  the  General  Conference  ap 
proved  the  plan,  changing  the  name  of  the  or 
ganization  to  the  Woman's  Parsonage  and 
Home  Mission  Society.  Provision  was  made 


for  a  central  committee,  with  officers  who 
should  share  the  work  which  Miss  Helm  had 
begun.  The  following  names  make  up  the  roll 
of  this  committee:  Mrs.  E.  E.  Wiley,  Presi 
dent;  Miss  Lucinda  B.  Helm,  General  Secre 
tary;  Mrs.  George  Kendrick,  General  Treas 
urer.  Managers:  Mrs.  R.  K.  Hargrove,  Mrs. 
Nathan  Scarritt,  Mrs.  D.  Atkins,  Mrs.  S.  S. 
King,  Miss  Emily  M.  Allen,  Mrs.  Maria  Car 
ter,  Mrs.  Ellen  Burdett,  and  Miss  Sue  Bennett. 
After  the  death  of  Miss  Sue  Bennett,  Miss 
Belle  H.  Bennett  became  a  member  of  the 
Central  Committee,  and  the  name  of  Mrs. 
Gross  Alexander  was  added  as  Editor  of  Leaf 

Parsonage  work  was  continued  in  the  same 
manner  as  formerly,  but  the  work  of  home 
missions  was  projected  and  was  entirely  under 
the  direction  of  the  Central  Committee. 

The  first  annual  meeting  of  the  Central 
Committee  was  held  at  Chestnut  Street 
Church,  Louisville,  Ky.,  in  April,  1891.  Miss 
Helm's  report  showed  472  auxiliaries  and  a 
total  amount  of  $10,477.37  raised  during  the 
previous  year. 

Mrs.  Wiley  continued  to  act  as  president  of 
the  Central  Committee  until  the  year  1896,  at 
which  time  Miss  Belle  Bennett  was  elected  and 


continued  as  the  head  of  the  Home  Mission 
Society  throughout  the  remainder  of  its  his 
tory  as  a  separate  organization. 

"Our  Homes"  Published. 

Soon  after  the  new  organization  took  form, 
Miss  Helm  began  the  publication  of  the  home 
mission  organ,  Our  Homes.  She  was  always 
delicate  in  health,  and  as  her  strength  began 
to  wane  it  became  apparent  that  the  work  she 
was  doing  was  beyond  her  physical  powers. 
She  resigned  her  secretaryship  in  1893  and 
Mrs.  R.  K.  Hargrove  was  elected  in  her  place. 
Miss  Helm,  however,  continued  to  edit  Our 
Homes  up  to  the  time  of  her  death.  On  the 
death  of  her  sister,  Miss  Mary  Helm  became 
the  editor  and  continued  in  that  office  until 
this  magazine  and  the  Missionary  Advocate 
were  discontinued.  Miss  Helm's  large  vision 
and  her  unusual  powers  of  mind  made  her  an 
editor  of  unusual  ability.  Much  of  the  larger 
development  of  the  home  mission  enterprise 
was  due  to  the  power  of  her  pen. 

The  Woman's  Home  Mission  Society. 

In  1898  there  came  to  the  organization  an 
other  change  which  meant  great  enlargement 
of  the  work.  Bv  the  action  of  the  General 


Conference  the  name  was  changed  to  the 
Woman's  Home  Mission  Society  and,  to  take 
the  place  of  the  Central  Committee,  a  Woman's 
Board  of  Home  Missions  was  organized  con 
sisting  of  a  president,  two  vice  presidents,  a 
general  secretary,  a  recording  secretary,  a  gen 
eral  treasurer,  and  a  corresponding  secretary 
or  alternate  from  each  Conference.  Thus 
again  the  responsibility  was  extended.  The 
first  officers  of  the  Board  were  as  follows: 
President,  Miss  Belle  H.  Bennett;  First  Vice 
President,  Mrs.  J.  D.  Hammond;  Second  Vice 
President,  Mrs.  T.  C.  Carroll;  General  Secre 
tary,  Mrs.  R.  K.  Hargrove;  Recording  Secre 
tary,  Miss  Emily  Allen;  Treasurer,  Mrs.  W. 
D.  Kirkland. 

Mrs.  R.  K.  Hargrove  was  general  secretary 
for  seven  years  and  then  resigned  on  account 
of  failing  health.  She  gives  the  following  ac 
count  of  the  growth  of  the  work  during  her 
administration:  "Through  God's  blessing,  in 
the  face  of  almost  insurmountable  difficulties, 
our  members  have  grown  in  seven  years  from 
11,107  local  and  connectional  members,  most 
of  whom  were  local,  to  23,315  connectional 
members.  Our  annual  receipts  have  increased 
from  $5,038  to  $40,190  and  our  local  funds 
from  $3,936  to  $20,549.  At  the  beginning  of 


this  period  we  held  no  property,  but  now  we 
have  possessions  valued  at  $80,000."  Mrs. 
R.  W.  MacDonell  succeeded  Mrs.  Hargrove 
in  the  office  of  general  secretary.  It  was  dur 
ing  her  administration  that  the  office  of  dea 
coness  was  inaugurated  and  the  largest  devel 
opment  came  to  the  work  of  city  missions. 


The  Woman's  Board  of  Foreign  Missions 
had  had  a  corporate  existence  of  thirty-two 
years  and  the  Woman's  Board  of  Home  Mis 
sions  twenty-five  years,  when  in  1910  the  two 
were  merged  and  a  unification  plan  consum 
mated  with  the  Board  of  Missions. 

The  Woman's  Board  of  Foreign  Missions 
had  for  a  number  of  years  worked  under  the 
handicap  of  imposed  restrictions,  and  in  1906 
a  commission  was  appointed  by  the  General 
Conference  for  the  express  purpose  of  pre 
senting  to  the  General  Conference  of  1910  a 
plan  of  unification.  The  commission  was  com 
posed  of  nine  men  and  only  four  women.  Both 
of  the  woman's  boards,  in  executive  session, 
voted  almost  unanimously  against  any  change 
in  their  autonomy.  A  number  of  meetings  of 
the  commission  was  held,  but  no  satisfactory 
plan  evolved,  so  when  the  final  meeting  came, 


just  prior  to  the  opening  of  the  General  Con 
ference,  the  entire  question  of  unification  was 
reopened.  A  plan  was  finally  agreed  upon 
which  was  presented  to  the  General  Conference 
and  ratified  without  amendment. 

Under  this  plan  the  two  woman's  hoards 
ceased  to  exist  as  separate  organizations,  and 
the  Woman's  Missionary  Council  was  created 
as  their  successor  which  was  to  function  with 
much  of  their  former  power,  subject,  ho\vever, 
to  the  sanction  of  the  Board  of  Missions.  Pro 
vision  was  also  made  for  the  membership  of 
fifteen  women  on  the  Board  of  Missions — ten 
managers,  four  secretaries,  who  were  also 
secretaries  of  the  Board  of  Missions,  and  the 

The  plan  was  new  and  untried,  and  the  rep 
resentation  of  the  women  on  the  Board  was 
comparatively  small,  yet  they  entered  into  the 
new  enterprise  with  heart  and  enthusiasm,  be 
lieving  it  to  be  a  step  forward  in  the  union  of 
the  forces  for  the  upbuilding  of  the  kingdom. 
Their  pledge  to  the  Church  was  made  before 
the  General  Conference  in  the  following 

We  are  not  unmindful  of  all  that  is  accorded  women 
by  this  measure,  but  we  also  remember  the  great  heart 
ache  that  will  come  to  the  women  of  the  Church  as  we 


pass  out  of  the  old  life  into  the  new.     We  plead  that 
you  will,  therefore,  make  no  radical  changes  in  the  re 
port  of  the  Committee  on  Missions  regarding  the  wom 
en,  their  special  work,  their  responsibility,  and  the  col 
lection  and   direction  of  moneys  contributed  by  them. 
God  helping  us,  we  will  do  all  in  our  power  to  make 
the  proposed  plan  effective  in  bringing  the  world  to  a 
knowledge  of  Jesus  Christ  and  his  saving  power. 
MRS.   R.   W.    MACDONELL, 
MRS.  J.  B.  COBB. 

The  officers  and  executive  committees  of 
the  two  woman's  boards  met  at  Asheville  be 
fore  the  adjournment  of  the  General  Confer 
ence.  Miss  Belle  H.  Bennett,  whose  heart  and 
life  had  for  years  been  in  the  work  of  foreign 
missions  and  who  had  from  the  beginning 
been  the  great  leader  of  the  home  mission 
forces,  was  unanimously  and  without  question 
elected  as  president  of  this  new  united  woman's 
work.  Mrs.  J.  B.  Cobb,  who  had  been  for  a 
number  of  years  Associate  Secretary  in  the 
Woman's  Foreign  Board,  was  elected  Corre 
sponding  Secretary  of  the  Woman's  Mission 
ary  Council,  Foreign  Department;  while  Mrs. 
R.  W.  MacDonell  was  elected  to  the  secretary 
ship  of  the  Home  Department.  Mrs.  A.  L. 
Marshall  was  elected  Editorial  Secretary ;  Miss 
Mabel  Head,  Educational  Secretary;  Miss 


Daisy  Davies,  Field  Secretary;  and  Mrs.  F. 
H.  E.  Ross,  Treasurer.  Mrs.  Fitzgerald  S. 
Parker,  Recording  Secretary  of  the  Woman's 
Foreign  Board  and  Mrs.  Frank  Siler,  Record 
ing  Secretary  of  the  Woman's  Home  Board 
were  both  elected  to  this  same  work  in  the 
Woman's  Missionary  Council.  The  following 
ten  women  were  elected  as  Managers  of  the 
Board  of  Missions:  Miss  Belle  H.  Bennett, 
Miss  Maria  Layng  Gibson,  Mrs.  L.  P.  Smith, 
Mrs.  Luke  G.  Johnson,  Mrs.  W.  F.  Barnum, 
Mrs.  E.  B.  Chappell,  Miss  Daisy  Davies,  Mrs. 
Hume  R.  Steele,  Miss  Mary  Moore,  and  Mrs. 
Lee  Britt. 

On  April  20,  1911,  the  first  session  of  the 
Woman's  Missionary  Council  was  held  in  St. 
John's  Church,  St.  Louis,  Mo.  The  plan  of 
union,  had  left  the  Conferences  and  auxiliaries 
free  to  unite  or  remain  separate,  and  at  this 
meeting  there  came  an  unexpected  demand  for 
definite  ruling  on  this  subject.  The  Council 
wisely  advised  union  and  left  the  matter  to 
be  settled  by  the  Conferences  and  auxiliaries 
themselves.  While  there  was  much  opposition 
to  unification  in  some  quarters,  yet  within  a 
few  short  months  nearly  every  Conference  had 
loyally  fallen  into  line.,  and  the  world  rapidly 


became  to  these  missionary  women  one  great 
mission  field. 

At  the  time  of  the  third  annual  session  of 
the  Council  the  membership  of  the  woman's 
united  societies  was  increasing  so  rapidly  and 
the  forward  look  becoming  so  filled  with  hope 
that  the  President  recommended  the  election 
of  a  secretary  whose  duty  it  should  be  to  en 
large  and  strengthen  the  home  base.  At  this 
meeting  the  office  of  Home  Base  Secretary  was 
authorized  and  Mrs.  B.  W.  Lipscomb  elected 
to  fill  the  place. 

In  1914  Mrs.  J.  B.  Cobb  declined  reelection, 
and  Miss  Mabel  Head  was  selected  as  her  suc 
cessor,  while  Mrs.  H.  R.  Steele  was  chosen  for 
the  office  of  Educational  Secretary. 

The  work  under  the  new  plan  grew  so 
rapidly  that  a  larger  working  force  was  de 
manded.  This  demand  resulted  in  legislation 
by  the  General  Conference  of  1918  providing 
for  additional  secretaries:  two  executives  for 
the  home  department,  two  for  the  foreign, 
and  two  for  the  educational.  The  following 
were  elected  to  fill  these  places:  Mrs.  R.  W. 
MacDonnell,  in  charge  of  Deaconess  and  City 
Mission  Work;  Mrs.  J.  W.  Downs,  in  charge 
of  Home  Mission  Educational  Institutions  and 
Social  Service ;  Miss  Mabel  K.  Howell,  Execu- 


tive  Secretary  of  Oriental  Fields ;  and  Miss 
Esther  Case,  Executive  Secretary  for  Latin- 
American  and  African  fields;  Mrs.  H.  R. 
Steele,  Educational  Secretary  in  charge  of 
candidate  work;  and  Miss  Sara  Estelle  Has- 
kin,  Educational  Secretary,  in  charge  of  litera 

Mrs.  R.  W.  MacDonell  resigned  in  1919 
and  Mrs.  J.  H.  McCoy  was  elected  to  fill  her 
place.  Mrs.  MacDonell  had  served  the  Wom 
an's  Board  of  Home  Missions  for  ten  years 
and  the  Woman's  Missionary  Council  for  nine 
years,  making  in  all  nineteen  years  of  efficient 
service.  Her  report  at  the  end  of  this  period 
says:  "Through  God's  blessing  this  work  in 
these  years  has  grown  from  a  cash  collection 
of  $48,249.17  to  $263,896.07;  while  City  Mis 
sion  Board  expenditures  have  increased  from 
$6,237.76  to  $81,418.77.  Nineteen  hundred 
parsonages  were  aided.  The  endowment  funds 
have  increased  from  $19,494.81  to  $119,104. 
Work  among  Negroes,  Mexicans,  and  de 
pendent  girls  has  been  inaugurated.  The  office 
of  deaconess  has  been  created  in  the  Church, 
and  its  development  committed  to  the  Home 
Department.  One  hundred  and  twenty-five 
deaconesses  and  one  hundred  and  eleven  home 
missionaries  have  been  trained  and  sent  out 


into  the  work.  The  number  of  city  mission 
boards  has  increased  from  eight  to  thirty-six, 
while  a  system  of  Wesley  Houses  and  other 
social  centers  has  been  developed.  There  are 
now  thirty-seven  Wesley  Houses,  Bethlehem 
Houses,  and  other  social  centers,  and  seven  co 
operative  homes  for  working  girls  in  opera 

In  1920  the  organized  woman's  missionary 
work  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church, 
South,  marked  its  forty-second  year.  The 
story  of  its  achievements  is  told  briefly  in  the 
chapters  which  follow. 



Lead  me,  yea,  lead  me  deeper  into  life, 
This  suffering  human  life  wherein  thou  liv'st 
And  breathest  still  and  holdst  thy  way  divine. 
'Tis  here,  O  pitying  Christ,  where  thee  I  seek, 
Here  where  the  strife  is  fiercest,  where  the  sun 
Beats  down  upon  the  highway  thronged  with  men, 
And  in  the  raging  mart.     O  deeper  lead 
My  soul  into  the  living  world  of  souls 
Where  thou  dost  move. 

—Richard  Watson  Gilder. 




The  Clapton  School. 

The  Clopton  Boarding  School,  conducted  by 
Mrs.  J.  W.  Lambuth,  in  Shanghai,  China, 
was  the  strong  appeal  which  urged  the  wom 
en  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  South, 
to  launch  out  upon  their  first  great  missionary 
undertaking.  Consequently,  when  Miss  Lochie 
Rankin  offered  herself  for  China  she  was  ac 
cepted  and  appointed  to  assist  Mrs.  Lambuth. 
A  contribution  in  money,  which  came  from  the 
gift  and  sale  of  Mrs.  D.  H.  McGavock's  wed 
ding  diamonds,  had  already  made  possible  a 
building  for  this  school.  The  gift  carried 
with  it  the  name  "Clopton,"  in  honor  of  Mrs. 
McGavock's  mother,  whose  maiden  name  was 
Elizabeth  Clopton. 

Pleasant  College. 

Because  of  the  inadvisability  of  enlarging 
the  Clopton  School,  it  was  urged  by  Dr.  Wal 
ter  Lambuth  that  a  school  for  girls  be  opened 



in  Nanziang,  a  city  fifteen  miles  from  Shang 
hai.  Accordingly,  at  the  close  of  Miss  Ran- 
kin's  first  year  she  was  appointed  to  this  city, 
which  could  be  reached  only  by  boat  or  wheel 

At  the  first  meeting  of  the  General  Execu 
tive  Association  of  the  Woman's  Missionary 
Society  $1,500  was  appropriated  for  this  new 
school  and  $750  for  a  second  missionary,  and 
Pleasant  College  became  the  first  real  mis 
sionary  enterprise  of  the  women  of  the  M. 
E.  Church.  South.  Miss  Dora  Rankin,  the 
sister  of  Miss  Lochie  Rankin,  offered  herself 
in  response  to  the  call  that  was  sent  out  for 
another  worker.  Pleasant  College  was  opened 
with  fourteen  boarding  pupils.  This  number 
soon  increased  to  thirty,  the  full  number  that 
could  receive  accommodation.  In  addition  to 
the  boarding  school,  several  day  schools  were 
opened  for  boys  and  girls.  With  indomitable 
courage  and  unwavering  faith  this  first  work 
was  carried  forward  under  the  trying  circum 
stances  of  complete  isolation  and  strange  sur 
roundings.  In  1883  a  larger  school,  a  new 
church,  and  a  new  school  for  the  boys  made 
the  wrork  less  difficult. 

Two  years  later  a  blow  fell  upon  this  new 
missionary  enterprise,  when  Miss  Dora  Ran- 


kin's  health  failed,  and  she  was  called  to  her 
reward.  The  heroic  sister,  however,  never 
abated  her  efforts,  but  concentrated  her  mind 
and  soul  upon  the  enlargement  of  the  work. 
She  had  been  conducting  a  day  school  for 
boys  in  Kading  under  the  most  discouraging 
circumstances  when  suddenly,  in  1887,  the 
doors  of  opportunity  were  thrown  wide  open. 
The  literati  of  the  city  had  come  to  appreci 
ate  her  efforts  and  were  begging  her  to  open 
an  Anglo-Chinese  school.  Misses  Kate  Rob 
erts  and  Ada  Reagan  were  left  in  charge 
at  Nantziang  while  Miss  Rankin  worked  in 
Kading,  itinerating  between  the  two  places  in 
an  uncomfortable  canal  boat.  Because  of  the 
difficulty  of  making  the  daily  trips,  she  moved 
to  Kading  and  was  the  first  foreign  woman  to 
sleep  in  that  great  walled  city.  Mrs.  Cobb 
says  of  this  wonderful  work:  "All  classes  had 
to  be  accommodated.  The  gifted  son  of  the 
official;  the  shrewd,  quick-witted  son  of  the 
tradesman;  the  less  brilliant  son  of  the  day 
laborer — all  heard  the  old,  old  story  with  the 
child  of  the  poorest  coolie.  The  school  was 
arranged  in  every  particular  to  suit  the  Chi 
nese.  There  were  no  stoves,  no  wrooden  floors, 
only  large  rooms  with  bare  stone  floors  which 
even  the  bright  winter  sunshine  could  not 


make  comfortable.  Despite  the  heat  of  sum 
mer,  the  rooms  were  endurable  only  during 
that  season.  At  last  riots  became  common  in 
the  city,  and  though  Miss  Rankin's  work  was 
not  disturbed,  it  was  deemed  wise  for  her  to  re 
move  to  Nanziang.  The  work  in  the  two 
places  was  very  exhausting;  but  she  met  all 
her  engagements  through  cold,  rain,  heat,  and 
illness;  and  the  school  at  Nanziang  increased 
in  interest  and  numbers,  the  power  of  the 
gospel  penetrating  all  classes." 

In  1901  the  General  Board  of  Missions  de 
cided  to  carry  on  work  in  prefectural  cities 
only,  and  upon  the  withdrawal  of  other  mis 
sion  workers  it  seemed  wise  for  the  women 
to  abandon  Nanziang  and  Kading.  This  was 
a  great  distress  to  both  Miss  Rankin  and  the 
people  whom  she  served.  She  still  continued 
her  work  among  them,  however,  by  paying 
the  expenses  of  a  day  school  at  Nanziang. 

Miss  Rankin,  together  with  Miss  Ella  Cof 
fee  who  had  become  associated  with  her,  was 
appointed  by  the  bishop  to  pioneer  work  in 
Huchow.  Miss  Rankin  initiated  a  school  for 
boys,  while  Miss  Coffee  opened  the  Virginia 
School  for  Girls.  Miss  Rankin  remained  at 
her  post  of  service  for  nineteen  years  without 
a  furlough.  She  came  home  in  1914,  but  hur- 


ried  back  as  soon  as  the  Council  would  allow 
to  resume  with  glad  heart  the  service  of  long 
years  in  China.  Her  courage  and  energy 
and  ability  set  a  pace  for  the  work  in  this 
field  that  never  lagged. 

McTyeire  School. 

The  steamship  City  of  Peking  sailed  from 
San  Francisco  October  18,  1884,  carrying 
nine  missionaries,  among  them  Miss  Laura 
Hay  good,  a  talented  high  school  teacher,  of 
Atlanta,  Ga.,  who  had  responded  to  the  plea 
of  Dr.  Young  J.  Allen  for  more  women  mis 
sionaries  to  lead  the  women  of  China.  His 
vision  of  the  redemption  of  China  was  all- 
inclusive  and  carried  with  it  the  conviction 
that  the  high-class  Chinese  should  be  reached 
by  the  gospel  of  Jesus  Christ. 

Miss  Haygood's  first  work  after  she  reached 
the  field  was  the  teaching  of  English  in  the 
Anglo-Chinese  College.  She  soon  caught  Dr. 
Allen's  vision  for  reaching  the  leadership  of 
China  and  set  her  whole  mind  and  heart  upon 
the  establishment  of  a  high-grade  school  in 
Shanghai  for  high-class  Chinese  girls.  While 
waiting  for  funds  from  the  Woman's  Board 
she  taught  in  the  Clopton  School,  which  after- 


wards  became  the  primary  department  of  the 
high  school  which  she  established.  After 
many  delays,  the  school  had  its  opening  in  the 
fall  of  1893.  This  was  the  beginning  of  a 
new  era  in  woman's  work  in  China.  From 
seven,  the  first  enrollment,  the  number  rapid 
ly  increased  to  hundreds,  until  within  ten 
years  the  buildings  were  outgrown.  McGav- 
ock  Home  was  added,  the  parsonage  next  door 
secured ;  but  still  girls  were  being  turned  away. 
The  church  building  on  the  compound  was 
purchased,  neighboring  houses  were  rent 
ed;  still  these  did  not  suffice  for  the  number 
who  applied  for  admittance.  Miss.  Haygood, 
in  her  seven  years  of  service  in  the  school, 
put  upon  it  a  stamp  which  marked  it  as  the 
leading  girls'  school  in  all  China. 

Miss  Helen  Richardson,  her  worthy  suc 
cessor,  gave  to  McTyeire  seventeen  years  of 
self-sacrificing  service,  helping  to  build  the 
character  of  the  womanhood  of  China.  Dur 
ing  her  administration  the  growth  and  circum 
stances  of  the  institution  demanded  a  change 
of  locality,  and  in  1916  a  handsome  property 
of  nine  acres  was  purchased  in  a  suburb  of 
Shanghai.  The  high  school  was  moved  into 
the  twenty-five  room  residence  which  was  al 
ready  on  the  property,  while  the  grades  were 


continued  down  town.  Upon  the  death  of 
Miss  Helen  Richardson  the  school  was  car 
ried  on  for  one  year  by  the  faculty  without  a 
principal  in  charge.  In  1918  Miss  Martha 
Pyle  was  appointed  Principal.  Miss  Pyle  had 
once,  for  a  short  time,  been  a  teacher  in  Mc- 
Tyeire.  She  had  also  opened  the  Laura  Hay- 
good  in  Soochow  and  continued  at  its  head 
until  it  was  changed  to  a  normal  school.  She 
was,  therefore,  well  fitted  as  the  successor  of 
the  two  able  principals  who  had  preceded  her. 
If  the  history  of  the  students  of  McTyeire 
school  were  written,  it  would  be  found  that 
they  have  come  from  homes  of  all  classes 
of  Chinese  people  and  from  all  sections  of 
China.  It  would  also  be  discovered  that  the 
graduates  have  come  to  occupy  positions  of 
trust  and  leadership,  and  that  they  have  shared 
in  the  making  of  new  China.  In  1920  twenty- 
nine  young  Chinese  women  had  been  sent  to 
American  colleges  on  the  indemnity  fund. 
Of  this  number  thirteen  were  McTyeire  girls 
who  had  stood  the  test  and  won  the  honor. 

The  Laura  Haygood  School. 

The  woman's  work  in  Soochow,  like  that 
in  Shanghai,  owed  its  beginning  to  the  wife 


of  a  missionary.  In  1881  an  appropriation 
was  made  by  the  Woman's  Board  for  the 
opening  of  a  boarding  school  in  Soochow  to 
be  in  charge  of  Mrs.  A.  P.  Parker.  A  plant 
was  purchased,  and  the  school  was  opened 
the  following  year  with  twelve  pupils  and  a 
teacher  who  had  been  trained  in  the  Clopton 
school  in  Shanghai.  This  school  for  a  time 
bore  the  name  of  East  Side  Boarding  School, 
but  was  later  called  the  Mary  Lambuth  School. 
In  her  first  Deport,  Mrs.  Parker  says:  "I 
spend  all  my  mornings  with  the  scholars,  an 
hour  and  a  half  of  which  time  is  spent  in 
their  Christian  books,  geography,  and  arith 
metic,  the  remainder  of  the  time  in  sewing. 
In  the  afternoon  a  native  teacher  takes 
charge."  An  item  in  the  report  of  the  fol 
lowing  year  shows  the  untiring  effort  and  the 
multiplicity  of  tasks  undertaken  by  this  con 
secrated  woman.  She  says:  "We  have  taken 
up  no  new  work.  It  has  required  all  our  time 
and  strength  to  keep  up  the  old  under  the  de 
mands  of  its  natural  growth.  We  still  carry 
on  the  day  schools  for  boys  and  girls,  the 
Bible  class  for  women,  the  boarding  school, 
and  Sabbath  school,  thus  having  under  con 
stant  Christian  instruction  over  180  women 
and  children."  Thus  we  can  see  that  through 


Mrs.  Parker's  untiring  efforts  the  way  for 
our  work  in  Soochow  was  pioneered  and  the 
foundations  laid.  She  continued  in  charge  of 
the  boarding  school  until  1887,  when  it  was 
turned  over  to  Miss  Lou  Phillips.  Mrs.  J.  P. 
Campbell  afterwards  directed  the  affairs  of  the 
school  until  1895,  when  Miss  Martha  Pyle 
undertook  its  supervision.  Miss  Pyle  began 
at  once  to  urge  the  enlargement  of  the  insti 
tution.  She  presented  to  the  Board  the  spe 
cial  need  for  the  Christian  education  of  the 
women  of  that  section,  in  order  that  the  Chris 
tian  men  who  came  out  from  Soochow  Uni 
versity  might  not,  necessarily,  be  handicapped 
by  wedding  heathen  wives.  It  was  in  the 
plan  of  Miss  Laura  Haygood,  when  she  was 
Superintendent  of  the  mission,  to  establish  a 
school  in  Soochow  that  would  be  the  equal  of 

In  1901  the  Board  voted  the  consolidation 
of  the  Mary  Lambuth  and  the  Clopton  Schools, 
giving  to  the  Shanghai  school  the  name  Clop- 
ton-Lambuth.  At  the  same  time  plans  were 
made  for  the  establishment  of  a  larger  school 
in  Soochow  to  be  named  the  Laura  Haygood. 
Miss  Pyle,  having  had  a  year  on  furlough 
and  a  year  of  teaching  in  McTyeire,  returned 
to  open  the  Laura  Haygood  in  an  old  build- 


ing  and  to  plan  for  the  erection  of  a  new  build 
ing.  As  the  Laura  Haygood  began  to  assume 
pleasing  proportions,  one  of  the  missionaries 
wrote:  "The  Laura  Haygood,  when,  completed, 
will  be  worthy  of  the  name  it  bears  and  a  fit 
ting  memorial  to  one  who  gave  her  life  for 
China."  The  new  building  was  finally  com 
pleted  in  1906,  and  the  high  standard  that  the 
school  has  maintained  throughout  the  years 
of  its  existence  has  placed  it  in  the  ranks  of 
the  best  schools  for  girls  in  China.  Many 
Christian  women  have  gone  out  from  its 
doors  who  have  honored  the  name  of  their 
Alma  Mater. 

In  1916  the  demand  for  a  training  school 
that  would  supply  the  day  schools  with  trained 
Christian  teachers  had  become  so  urgent  that 
the  Laura  Haygood  was  changed  into  a  high- 
grade  normal.  Miss  Mary  Lou  White  served 
as  principal  for  the  first  year  and  was  then 
succeeded  by  Miss  Kate  Hackney,  who  held 
the  place  until  1920,  when  she  was  in  turn 
succeeded  by  Miss  Louise  Robinson. 

Davidson  Memorial. 

At  the  annual  meeting  in  St.  Louis,  1881, 
Mrs.  A.  B.  Davidson,  of  the  Baltimore  Con 
ference,  had  proposed  the  building  up  of  a 


fund  through  gifts  to  be  made  in  memory  of 
departed  ones.  The  plan  was  approved,  and 
when  the  school  for  Bible  women  was  opened 
in  East  Soochow  by  Mrs.  Julia  Gaither  this 
accumulated  fund  was  used,  and  the  school 
was  called  the  Davidson  Memorial  in  honor 
of  Mrs.  Davidson.  The  wrork  of  this  school 
was  to  teach  women  who  had  professed  faith 
in  Jesus  to  read  the  Bible  and  to  do  personal 
work  in  the  heathen  homes  of  the  city.  Later 
the  Bible  school  was  transferred  to  West  Soo 
chow,  where  a  center  of  work  was  formed  by 
union  with  the  industrial  school  and  the  girls' 
boarding  school. 

In  1904  Miss  Virginia  Atkinson  was  put 
in  full  charge  of  the  West  Soochow  work, 
which  included  not  only  the  Davidson  Me 
morial,  with  its  various  departments,  but  also 
nine  day  schools.  About  this  same  time  the 
Louise  Home,  a  residence  for  missionaries, 
was  moved,  brick  by  brick,  from  Nanziang  to 
West  Soochow,  a  distance  of  eighty  miles.  The 
Louise  Home  had  been  the  gift  of  Miss  Achsah 
Wilkins,  a  member  of  Trinity  Church  Auxilia- 
ary,  Baltimore,  in  memory  of  her  departed 
sister,  Louise.  It  had  been  the  home  of  the 
Rankin  sisters  and  their  coworkers  during 
their  years  of  service  in  Nanziang. 


The  industrial  department  of  the  Davidson 
Memorial,  later  called  the  Mocha  Garden  Mis 
sion,  was  enterprised  by  Miss  Atkinson  and 
Miss  Susie  Williams.  Miss  Williams's  thought 
had  been  to  keep  the  girls  who  were  in 
the  literary  department  under  Christian  in 
fluence  longer  than  the  regular  school  hours 
and  at  the  same  time  give  them  an  opportunity 
to  earn  a  livelihood.  The  school  grew  so  rap 
idly,  first  under  the  supervision  of  Miss  Wil 
liams  and  later  of  Miss  Mary  Culler  White, 
that  in  1905  it  was  moved  into  larger  quar 
ters.  The  prosperity  continued  until  the  "mul 
berry  grove,"  a  desirable  piece  of  land  ad 
jacent  to  the  Davidson  Memorial,  was  pur 
chased,  and  in  1911  a  new  house  was  erected. 
In  1912  Miss  Frances  Burkhead  was  made 
business  manager.  The  number  of  workers 
was  increased,  and  the  sales  increased  pro 
portionately.  Orders  for  the  exquisite  work 
done  in  the  Mocha  Garden  Mission  came  from 
China,  America,  the  Philippines,  Korea,  Eng 
land,  Norway,  and  Australia. 

Beautiful  as  was  the  work  and  important 
as  was  the  financial  results  for  the  workers, 
far  more  important  was  the  spiritual  help  that 
the  women  received  while  they  sat,  two  at  a 
frame,  and  listened  to  the  daily  instruction 


given  by  the  Bible  women.  Many  of  the 
workers  themselves  became  Bible  women; 
others,  learning  the  value  of  an  education, 
entered  the  academic  department  of  the  David 
son  Memorial.  It  is  also  worthy  of  note  that 
the  women  of  the  Moka  Garden  Mission  were 
the  first  women  to  learn  to  read  the  phonetic 
script  based  on  the  Wu  dialect.  The  first 
primer  of  the  Wu  dialect  written  in  the  phonet 
ic  script  was  prepared  by  Miss  Burkhead. 

Kindergarten  Work. 

The  first  kindergarten  in  Soochow  was 
opened  in  1907  in  connection  with  the  David 
son  Memorial.  The  building  which  housed 
the  school  was  made  possible  'through  the 
contributions  of  the  South  Georgia  Confer 
ence.  Miss  Wu,  the  teacher  in  charge,  was 
trained  by  Miss  Margaret  Cook,  of  the  Hiro 
shima  School  in  Japan.  Soon  after  the  open 
ing  of  the  kindergarten  the  new  regent  de 
creed  that  kindergarten  schools  should  be 
opened  in  connection  with  all  government 
schools.  This  soon  led  to  the  establishment 
of  a  kindergarten  training  department  at  the 
Davidson.  The  building  was  provided  by  the 
North  Alabama  Conference,  and  Miss  Nevada 


Martin,  of  the  Mississippi  Conference,  was 
appointed  director  in  1911. 

Mrs.  Staley,  of  Knoxville,  Tenn.,  gave  a  dia 
mond  ring  which  was  sold  and  the  money 
given  to  the  opening  of  a  kindergarten  in 
East  Soochow.  This  school  was  located  near 
St.  John's  Church  and  also  in  close  proximity 
to  the  Laura  Haygood  School.  The  Senah 
Staley  Kindergarten  soon  grew  to  such  pro 
portions  under  the  leadership  of  Miss  Mar 
guerite  Park  that  there  was  not  only  a  morn 
ing  school  but,  also,  an  afternoon  school,  thus 
giving  ample  opportunity  to  the  normal 
kindergarten  students  for  observation  and 
practice.  The  idea  grew  until,  in  1914,  there 
were  in  all  eleven  government  and  mission 
kindergartens  in  Soochow,  and  a  directors' 
meeting  was  being  held  each  month  under 
the  supervision  of  the  missionaries. 

In  1915  Miss  Kate  Hackney  was  made  Su 
pervisor  of  the  Kindergarten  Training  School 
at  Davidson.  The  following  year  this  de 
partment,  together  with  its  teaching  force, 
was  transferred  to  the  Laura  Haygood  and 
made  a  part  of  the  normal  school. 

Medical  Work. 
As  early  as  1880  plans  were  projected  for 


the  establishment  of  medical  work  in  Soochow 
to  supplement  that  of  the  General  Board  by 
serving  the  women  of  China  and  training  na 
tive  women  physicians.  The  first  step  taken 
was  to  send  Miss  Mildred  Phillips  to  the 
Woman's  Medical  College  in  Philadelphia  that 
she  might  be  trained  for  this  work.  The  hos 
pital  was  finally  opened  in  1886  in  two  build 
ings.  One  contained  a  ward  large  enough  for 
four  beds,  a  room  for  private  patients,  and  a 
service  room;  the  other  contained  a  kitchen 
and  a  wash  room.  During  the  first  month 
280  patients  were  treated  in  the  dispensary. 
After  many  hindrances  the  new  hospital  build 
ing  was  finished  and  formally  opened  by  Bish 
op  Wilson  in  October,  1889.  A  few  years 
later  a  children's  hospital  was  erected.  The 
"Bright  Jewels,"  of  North  Carolina,  contrib 
uted  $1,500  to  the  building  and  were  granted 
the  privilege  of  naming  it  in  honor  of  Mrs. 
Mary  Black,  a  much  loved  woman  of  that 
Conference.  The  children's  hospital  was  soon 
discontinued  for  lack  of  a  sufficient  staff,  and 
the  name  Mary  Black  was  then  transferred  to 
the  main  building. 

On  the  failure  of  Dr.  Phillips's  health,  Dr. 
Anne  Walter  took  charge  in  September,  1893. 
The  institution  continued  under  her  supervi- 


sion  for  three  years,  during  which  time  she 
inaugurated  the  first  modern  medical  school 
for  Chinese  women.  In  1896  Dr.  Margaret 
Polk  was  put  at  the  head  of  this  medical  work, 
and  that  year  the  first  Chinese  girls  to 
receive  diplomas  from  an  accredited  medical 
school  were  graduated  from  the  Mary  Black. 
The  numbers  that  graduated  in  the  years  to 
follow  were  limited,  but  the  training  received 
was  of  the  highest  order.  Dr.  Polk  secured 
a  charter  for  the  school  in  1908  and  was  able 
to  offer  to  her  students  the  same  instruction 
that  the  men  of  Soochow  University  were  re 
ceiving  from  the  same  teachers  at  the  same 
time.  This  instruction  was  of  inestimable 
value  to  the  pupils,  to  the  institution,  and  to 
the  homes  visited  professionally.  Dr.  Folk's 
influence  in  the  mission  grew  until  she  became 
a  power  not  only  as  physician,  but  also  as  ad 
visor  and  friend.  Thousands  came  to  her 
for  treatment,  and  most  of  them  went  away 
friends  of  the  hospital.  She  had  but  little 
time  for  outside  visiting  and  only  small  op 
portunity  for  learning  the  difficult  language. 
For  many  years  she  toiled  under  manifold 
difficulties.  Often  she  became  discouraged, 
but  she  never  gave  up  hope  or  ceased  to  put 
into  the  work  her  whole  life  and  effort.  After 


over  sixteen  years  of  devoted  service  Dr. 
Margaret  Polk  resigned  for  personal  reasons, 
and  her  niece,  Dr.  Ethel  Polk,  and  Dr.  Hattie 
Love  were  put  in  charge.  Both  of  these  wom 
en  had  had  exceptional  advantages.  They 
enlarged  the  scope  of  the  institution  by  es 
tablishing  clinics  in  several  country  places. 
They  gave  talks  to  the  women  on  hygiene,  tu 
berculosis,  sanitation  of  homes,  streets,  and 
public  places,  on  the  care  and  treatment  of 
children,  and  on  the  general  health  of  homes 
and  schools. 

In  1907  Miss  Mary  Hood,  R.N.,  was  ap 
pointed  to  take  charge  of  the  hospital  nurs 
ing.  Up  to  that  time  the  nurses  had  had  only 
such  direction  as  could  be  given  by  the  busy 
physicians  in  charge.  Miss  Hood  began  at 
once  to  develop  the  nurse-training  department, 
and  in  1913  she  writes:  "The  principal  event 
of  the  year  was  the  graduating  of  the  first 
class  of  nurses.  The  graduating  exercises 
were  held  in  June.  Three  received  diplomas 
and  four  received  certificates  testifying  to  a 
practical  training  of  six  years." 

The  standards  of  the  medical  and  nurse- 
training  schools  were  gradually  raised.  It 
was  found  impossible,  however,  to  meet  the 
demands  of  the  time  in  an  institution  with  no 


larger  equipment.  In  the  belief,  therefore, 
that  there  was  a  vast  need  for  well-equipped 
and  well-trained  native  women  physicians,  a 
definite  effort  began  to  be  made  for  the  es 
tablishment  of  an  institution  that  would  be 
adequate  to  meet  the  demands  of  the  times. 
This  led  to  the  thought  of  a  union  woman's 
medical  school  in  Shanghai,  and  negotiations 
were  begun  with  other  boards  for  its  opening. 
For  this  reason  the  Mary  Black  Hospital  was 
closed  in  1918,  and  the  physicians  and  nurses 
served  as  Red  Cross  workers  in  Siberia  until 
the  close  of  the  World  War. 

Maria  Gibson  Settlement. 

In  1912  Miss  Maggie  Rogers  was  appointed 
to  the  Kong  Hong  Church  in  Soochow  for 
the  purpose  of  helping  to  conserve  its  evan 
gelistic  efforts  by  the  establishment  of  a  center 
for  woman's  work.  A  kindergarten  and  a  day 
school  were  soon  developed,  the  teachers  being 
sent  out  from  the  Davidson  Memorial  Normal 
Department.  Two  Bible  women  were  also 
employed.  From  this  beginning  a  social  cen 
ter  was  soon  developed,  and  in  1914  a  one- 
hundred-room'  Chinese  residence  was  rented  to 
accommodate  the  work.  In  1916,  when  Miss 
Bennett  was  in  the  Orient,  this  house  was  pur- 


chased  and  at  her  request  given  the  name  of 
Maria  Gibson  Settlement.  The  opportunities 
of  the  institution  were  found  to  be  unlimited, 
for  it  was  located  near  the  church  and  within 
one  block  of  the  biggest  shopping  street  in 
Soochow  and  also  within  easy  reacn  of  one 
thousand  high-class  and  merchant  homes. 
The  work  having  been  begun  in  the  Church, 
it  continued  to  be  looked  upon  as  the  woman's 
department  of  the  Church.  The  fact  that 
the  settlement  was  being  conducted  in  a  Chi 
nese  house  gave  to  the  people  an  added  feel 
ing  of  freedom.  A  large  community  room, 
tea  room,  and  rest  room  constituted  one  of  the 
most  attractive  and  useful  features  of  the  in 
stitution.  Miss  Rogers,  as  Head  Resident,  was 
for  a  time  assisted  by  Miss  Florence  Herndon, 
and  later  Miss  Nina  Stallings  was  placed  in 
charge.  In  1920  four  Bible  women,  two  day 
school  teachers,  two  kindergarten  teachers, 
and  one  nurse  made  up  the  force  of  native 

Haycs-Wilkins  Institute. 

At  a  meeting  of  the  foreign  board  in  1896 
Miss  Richardson  was  commissioned  to  buy 
land  in  Sungkiang  for  the  erection  of  a  Bible 


school,  to  be  known  as  the  Hayes-Wilkins  In 
stitute.  Two  thousand  dollars  had  been  do 
nated  for  this  school  by  Miss  Wilkins  through 
the  solicitation  of  Mrs.  Hayes,  both  of  the 
Baltimore  Conference,  and  the  name  was  given 
in  honor  of  these  two  women.  The  school 
was  completed  in  1898  and  dedicated  by 
Bishop  Wilson  in  October  of  that  year.  The 
chapel  was  named  for  Melissa  Baker,  thereby 
honoring  another  member  of  the  Baltimore 
Conference.  At  first  the  pupils  were  few, 
but  the  women  of  the  city  began  to  visit  the 
school  in  such  numbers  that  the  prejudice 
against  the  foreigners  was  broken  down,  giv 
ing  the  missionaries  access  to  the  people.  In 
time  the  building  became  so  crowded  that  an 
addition  was  a  necessity.  Again  a  Baltimore 
woman  responded  to  the  need,  and  in  1904 
furnished  the  money  for  the  building  of 
Thomas  Annex,  which  bears  the  name  of  its 
donor.  In  1907  the  Hayes-Wilkins  School 
was  rebuilt  and  Thomas  Annex  enlarged. 
This  institution  has  for  years  been  a  center 
radiating  the  spirit  of  Jesus  Christ  through 
out  all  the  surrounding  sections.  Mrs.  Julia 
Gaither  spent  fourteen  years  in  this  institu 
tion,  and  as  one  of  the  main  results  of  her 
service  many  Bible  women  have  gone  out  to 


do  work  among  their  own  people.  In  1916 
Miss  Irene  King  became  head  of  the  school 
and  was  later  succeeded  by  Miss  Mary  Culler 

Susan  B.  Wilson  School. 

Miss  Alice  Waters,  who  was  in  charge  of 
the  day  school  in  Sungkiang,  saw  the  need  for 
a  boarding  school  at  that  point  and  in  1903 
secured  permission  from  the  Woman's  Board 
for  its  beginning.  The  school  was  opened 
in  rented  quarters,  but  soon  the  Baltimore 
Conference  came  again  to  the  rescue  and  con 
tributed  money  for  a  new  building,  which 
bore  the  name  Susan  B.  Wilson,  in  honor  of 
the  wife  of  Bishop  Wilson.  The  building  was 
dedicated  in  1907  by  Bishop  Wilson,  Mrs. 
Wilson  and  Dr.  Lambuth  taking  part  in  the 
dedicatory  exercises.  The  growth  of  the 
school  soon  demanded  an  addition,  which  was 
promptly  made  possible  by  the  generosity  of 
the  Baltimore  Conference.  A  kindergarten 
school  was  developed,  and  the  building  for 
this  was  supplied  through  the  liberality  of 
Mrs.  George  Bearing,  of  Louisville,  Ky.  This 
fund  was  supplemented  by  the  gift  of  Mrs. 
Sallie  Rushing,  of  Memphis. 


Hue  HOW. 
The  Virginia  School. 

It  will  be  recalled  that  Miss  Rankin  and 
her  coworker,  Miss  Coffey,  were  appointed 
to  Huchow  when  the  work  in  Nanziang  was 
closed.  They  brought  with  them  some  of  their 
former  pupils  as  workers.  At  first,  when 
Miss  Rankin  tried  to  rent  a  building  in  which 
to  open  a  school,  none  was  found  available; 
either  the  buildings  were  too  dilapidated  or  the 
rent  too  high.  However,  the  undaunted  pio 
neer  of  the  Woman's  Board  soon  won  her  way, 
and  the  people  began  to  make  overtures. 

The  Virginia  Conference  had  already  pro 
vided  money  for  a  boarding  school,  so  in  1901 
the  Virginia  School  opened  with  thirty  pupils, 
the  success  being  marked  from  the  very  first. 
Miss  Coffey  was  at  the  head  of  the  school  for 
three  years.  She  was  succeeded  by  Miss  Mil 
dred  Bomar,  whose  vision  and  untiring  ef 
forts  placed  the  institution  in  the  rank  with 
our  best  mission  schools.  A  new  building 
was  soon  erected,  one  of  the  most  beautiful 
owned  by  the  Board.  The  Tennessee  Home, 
the  gift  of  Tennessee  women,  was  built  as  a 
residence  for  the  missionaries.  When  Miss 


Bomar  was  appointed  to  Bible  woman's  work, 
she  was  succeeded  by  Miss  Clara  Steger. 

After  the  opening  of  the  Virginia  School 
Miss  Rankin  turned  her  attention  to  the  de 
velopment  of  day  schools  in  the  city  of  Hu- 
chow.  The  Memphis  School,  so  named  be 
cause  of  the  liberality  of  Miss  Rankin's  own 
Conference,  was  a  day  school,  and  yet  many 
of  its  pupils  came  from  the  surrounding  dis 
tricts  and  were  provided  lodging  outside  the 
building.  This  school  for  boys  was  still  in 
charge  of  Miss  Rankin  in  1920. 

The  Virgina  Primary  School  No.  I,  at 
Northgate,  the  Virginia  Primary  School  No. 
2,  at  Zaung  Ka,  and  the  kindergarten  were  es 
tablished  as  the  result  of  Miss  Rankin's  ef 
forts,  but  were  later  put  in  charge  of  Miss 
Mittie  Shelton  and  made  feeders  to  the  Vir 
ginia  School. 


It  has  been  the  policy  of  the  woman's  work 
to  carry  on  day  schools  in  all  the  cities  where 
the  boarding  schools  are  located,  thus  making 
them  a  feeder  to  the  higher  grades.  In  addi 
tion  to  these,  day  schools  have  been  opened  in 
nearly  all  of  the  outstations.  While  many  of 
them  have  not  been  well  graded  or  adequately 
equipped,  still  the  benefits  have  been  untold. 


In  nearly  every  case  evangelistic  work  result 
ed  in  the  establishment  of  schools. 

West  Soochow  Boys'  School. 

One  of  the  most  interesting  and  fruitful  of 
these  day  schools  was  located  at  West  Soo 
chow.  Miss  Mary  Tarrant,  its  principal  and 
the  source  of  its  power,  writes  of  its  origin 
and  history: 

Twenty-five  years  ago,  coming  two  miles  across  the 
city  every  day,  Miss  Atkinson  superintended  some  little 
day  schools  for  boys  in  West  Soochow.  The  idea  of 
educating  their  girls  had  not  yet  taken  hold  of  the  peo 
ple.  The  course  of  study  was  not  extensive.  The 
much-revered  Chinese  classics,  which  the  boys  learned 
by  heart,  swaying  their  bodies  from  side  to  side  as  they 
sang  out  the  characters,  composed  a  large  part  of  the 
course.  Bible  stories  and  catechisms  were  taught  the 
children  and  as  much  arithmetic  and  geography  as  their 
classic-bound  little  minds  would  receive.  It  was  hard, 
too,  to  find  suitable  textbooks.  The  trips  across  the 
city  were  very  unsatisfactory,  and  so  a  Chinese  house 
was  rented,  and  Miss  Atkinson  gathered  her  day  schools 
together  in  one  place,  where  she  could  live  and  watch 
them.  English  was  added  to  the  course  for  a  very 
nominal  charge.  This  kept  parents  from  taking  boys 
out  of  school  and  putting  them  to  learn  a  trade  as  soon 
as  they  were  beginning  to  understand  Christianity.  A 
number  of  boys  united  with  the  Church,  some  of  whom 
are  now  teachers  in  our  schools  and  stewards  in  the 
Church.  As  Miss  Atkinson's  work  increased  in  other 
quarters,  these  day  schools  were  turned  over  to  me. 
About  that  time  China  began  to  appreciate  the  impor- 


tance  of  Western  education.  The  lessons  she  learned 
after  the  Boxer  uprising  were  not  in  vain.  The  return 
of  the  Boxer  indemnity  money  to  her  by  the  United 
States  for  the  education  of  students  in  America  stirred 
up  the  government  to  improve  education  in  China.  A 
government  course  of  study,  according  to  grades,  was 
published.  Our  day  schools,  which  had  never  been  regu 
larly  graded,  we  tried  to  bring  into  line.  Instead  of 
considering  them  as  separate  schools  for  boys  of  dif 
ferent  ages,  we  rearranged  the  schools  and  made  three 
departments  according  to  the  government  plan,  corre 
lating  the  three  under  the  name  Anglo-Chinese  Acade 
my.  These  departments,  which  still  have  the  names 
of  the  home  supporters,  are :  The  McKendree  Lower 
Primary  Department,  the  Waco  District  Higher  Pri 
mary  Department,  and  the  Galloway  Middle  School. 
This  school  meets  a  need  in  our  West  Soochow  Church. 
It  makes  possible  a  Christian  education  for  the  sons 
of  the  Church  members.  If  they  are  not  able  to  pay 
the  full  rate  of  tuition,  they  are  helped  by  scholarships. 
A  small  part  of  this  money  the  boys  pay  back  to  the 
school  when  they  go  to  work.  There  are  one  hundred 
and  twenty-two  pupils  enrolled  this  fall  (1918.)  There 
are  forty-five  Christians  and  thirty-three  probationers. 
The  majority  of  those  who  have  not  yet  made  any  pro 
fession  are  in  the  primary  departments. 

The  Sallie  Stewart  School. 

About  the  time  that  Miss  Atkinson  moved 
the  West  Soochow  day  schools  into  one  big 
house,  a  little  day  school  for  girls  was  opened 
near  by.  This  school,  called  the  Sallie  Stew 
art,  developed  with  the  years  into  two  depart- 


ments,  a  lower  and  a  higher  primary.     Later 
it  became  a  part  of  the  Davidson  Memorial. 


Two  day  schools  and  evangelistic  centers 
were  opened  in  Changchow  in  1908,  the  one 
at  North  Gate  by  Miss  Ella  Leverett  and  the 
other  at  East  Gate  by  Miss  Ida  Anderson.  The 
North  Gate  work  was  conducted  in  a  Chi 
nese  house  in  which  Miss  Leverett  lived. 
Speaking  of  this  house,  she  says:  "It  is  quite 
easy  to  spread  abroad  on  the  right  hand  and 
on  the  left,  and  so  we  have  spread  as  the  old 
tent  filled."  Of  the  character  of  the  school 
work  which  had  been  developed,  Miss  Leverett 
writes  in  1914: 

There  is  an  eight-year  course  in  this  school,  and 
Chinese  is  stressed  rather  than  English.  The  school 
has  grown  wonderfully,  and  arrangements  have  been 
made  to  accommodate  a  few  other  pupils,  for  we  can 
not  stop,  since  the  tide  is  pushing  us  on  with  such 
force.  The  schools  in  Changchow  shape  their  course 
by  ours,  follow  us  in  many  respects,  and  look  to  us  for 
help.  Some  of  them  have  even  asked  me  to  help  them 
by  teaching  their  girls  to  sing.  A  day  school  such  as 
we  are  trying  to  make  ours  is  obliged  to  wield  a  great 
influence  for  good  in  the  city.  The  girls  go  home 
every  night  with  their  Bibles,  songbooks,  and  Chris 
tian  teachings  of  the  day,  and  this  is  bound  to  impress 
the  family.  God  is  blessing  us  and  our  pupils,  and  we 
are  happy  in  the  work. 


The  day  school  at  East  Gate  was  opened  in 
an  old  ancestral  hall,  which  the  artistic  taste 
of  Miss  Anderson  transformed  into  a  most 
attractive  room.  Adjoining  this  hall  was  a 
famous  temple  of  a  war  god,  which,  through 
the  influence  of  the  missionaries,  was  allowed 
to  be  used  for  evangelistic  services. 

Humbert  Home,  named  for  Mrs.  J.  W. 
Humbert,  for  years  Corresponding  Secretary 
of  the  South  Carolina  Conference  Society,  was 
erected  in  1916  for  the  missionaries'  residence. 
This  was  the  first  foreign  house  built  in  Chang- 
chow.  It  proved  to  be  a  great  attraction  to 
the  people,  and  soon  became  a  social  and  evan 
gelistic  center.  In  1914  Miss  Anderson  writes 
of  her  day  school: 

The  school  has  grown  steadily,  until  now  we  have 
about  sixty  pupils.  We  have  no  dividing  line  between 
the  evangelistic  work  and  the  school.  Most  of  our 
women  probationers  are  from  the  homes  of  our  girls. 
These  homes  are  open  to  the  Bible  women ;  and  as  each 
of  these  workers  has  a  Bible  or  singing  or  industrial 
class  in  the  school,  they  are  welcomed  in  the  homes  as 
their  children's  teachers,  and  so  there  are  points  of 
contact.  The  girls  not  only  attend  Sunday  school  and 
Church  services,  but  many  of  them  elect  to  come  in  the 
afternoons  to  teach  in  the  two  Sunday  schools  for  the 
children  who  do  not  attend  our  day  schools. 


Gilding  College. 

As  the  years  passed  and  the  mission  work 
of  the  denominations  grew  in  China,  a  need 
was  felt  for  Christian  colleges  for  women. 
In  response  to  this  demand  definite  steps  were 
taken  in  1911  for  the  establishment  of  a 
union  woman's  college  at  Nanking.  This  in 
stitution  came  to  be  known  as  Ginling  College. 
In  its  building  and  maintenance  the  women 
of  Southern  Methodism  were  responsible  for 
a  one-fifth  share. 

Bible  School. 

In  1912  a  union  Bible  school  was  es 
tablished  in  Nanking,  supported  by  the  mis 
sion  boards  of  the  Northern  and  Southern 
Presbyterians,  the  Baptists,  the  Friends, 
the  Methodist  Episcopal,  and  the  Woman's 
Missionary  Council  of  the  Methodist  Episco 
pal  Church,  South.  This  school  soon  came 
to  be  the  most  highly  specialized  training  cen 
ter  for  Christian  workers  in  China.  Miss  Ruth 
Brittain,  our  capable  and  efficient  representa 
tive  in  her  report  of  1919  says  of  the  insti 


In  1919  a  class  of  eight  young  women  was  graduated. 
There  are  now  thirty-five  graduates  at  work  in  the 
provinces  of  Fukien,  Chekiang,  and  Kiangsu.  Fifteen 
are  evangelists,  and  ten  are  teachers  in  Bible  schools. 
This  fall  thirty-four  boarders  and  three  day  students 
enrolled.  They  represent  ten  provinces  and  fourteen 
denominations.  They  came  from  thirty-one  schools. 
The  Southern  Methodists  have  three  students,  two  from 
Laura  Haygood  and  one  from  McTyeire. 

Our  greatest  need  is  a  new  building,  to  which  the 
cooperating  boards  gave  their  $5,000  shares.  The  plans 
are  being  pushed  forward,  and  we  hope  for  their  ma 
terialization  in  the  near  future. 


From  the  very  beginning,  the  work  of  our 
schools  in  China  was  made  truly  evangelistic ; 
but  it  was  not  until  1909  that  the  Woman's 
Board  appointed  missionaries  who  should  give 
their  entire  time  to  evangelistic  work.  It  was 
in  that  year  that  Miss  Mary  Culler  White  was 
appointed  to  the  Mary  Black  Hospital  and  out- 
stations  for  evangelistic  service.  In  the  hos 
pital  she  had  three  or  four  Bible  women  who 
gave  full  time  and  a  number  of  helpers  who 
were  delegated  to  work  in  the  city  and  coun 
try.  Some  years  more  than  8,500  patients 
were  received  into  the  hospital.  A  patient  was 
usually  accompanied  by  two  or  three  attend 
ants,  thus  making  about  30,000  people  who 
went  in  and  out  of  the  doors  of  the  hospital. 


This    gave    great    possibilities    for    personal 

In  1910  all  the  mission  boards  of  China 
began  to  place  new  emphasis  upon,  evangelis 
tic  work,  and  this  opened  up  new  opportuni 
ties  for  our  evangelistic  workers.  The  names 
of  Mrs.  Gaither,  Misses  Tarrant,  Bomar,  Wa 
ters,  King,  Anderson,  Leverett,  Rogers, 
Wales,  Combs,  and  Bliler  are  numbered  among 
those  who  gave  time  and  service  to  strictly 
evangelistic  work.  These  missionaries,  togeth 
er  with  scores  of  Bible  women  trained  as  work 
ers  and  helpers,  have  taught  the  gospel  of  Je 
sus  in  public  meetings  and  in  personal  work 
until  thousands  have  been  added  to  the  Church 
es  through  their  efforts. 


One  of  the  most  certain  signs  of  the  suc 
cess  of  the  gospel  in  China  was  the  organ 
ization  of  a  Woman's  Missionary  Society  in 
1916.  In  1920  there  were  forty-one  auxili 
aries  with  a  total  membership  of  1,514.  So 
cieties  numbering  fifty  or  sixty  members  were 
not  uncommon,  these  members  often  coming 
for  miles  to  attend  their  meetings.  At  that 
time  young  people's  auxiliaries  had  also  been 
organized  in  most  of  the  mission  schools. 



The  report  of  1920  showed  that  the  total 
receipts  of  that  year  were  $1,315.91.  From 
this  amount  $768.25  went  to  the  support  of 
the  mission  in  Yun-nan  Province  and  $109.76 
to  the  Woman's  Missionary  Council  for  the 
work  in  Africa.  A  large  part  of  this  money 
was  raised  by  life  certificates,  the  life  certi 
ficate  having  made  a  special  appeal  to  the  Chi 
nese  women  as  a  substitute  for  some  of  the 
practices  connected  with  ancestral  worship. 

A  report  of  the  third  annual  meeting  of  the 
China  Mission  Conference  says: 

The  third  annual  meeting  of  the  China  Mission  Con 
ference  Woman's  Missionary  Society  was  held  in  Sung- 
kiang  April  21-25.  Eleven  Conference  officers  and 
sixty-four  delegates  were  in  attendance.  The  total 
number  of  auxiliaries  in  the  Conference  was  forty-one, 
and  thirty-five  of  these  had  delegates  at  the  annual 
meeting.  Besides  the  delegates,  there  were  forty-five 
visitors  attending  the  Conference,  who  came  at  their 
own  expense  for  the  privilege  of  attending  the  Con 
ference  to  listen  and  learn. 

A  good  program  of  inspirational  addresses,  stere- 
opticon  addresses,  and  departmental  drills  had  been  ar 
ranged,  and  this  was  interspersed  with  business  which 
was  conducted  in  a  parliamentary  manner.  Mrs.  K.  T. 
Yang,  the  President,  presided  with  quiet  dignity,  and 
she  was  ably  assisted  by  an  enthusiastic  corps  of  officers. 
All  of  the  officers  were  Chinese,  and  their  enthusiasm 
grew  with  their  growing  knowledge  of  the  work.  This 
year  there  was  a  distinct  advance  due  to  the  return  of 


Mrs.  Tsiang  and  her  report  of  the  work  of  the  Mis 
sionary  Council  and  the  local  auxiliaries  in  America. 

Mrs.  Tsiang  attended  the  annual  meeting 
of  the  Woman's  Missionary  Council  in  1919, 
she  being  the  first  representative  from  the  na 
tive  peoples  of  the  mission  field  who  ever  sat 
as  a  delegate  in  the  governing  body  of  one 
of  the  woman's  missionary  organizations  of 
the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  South. 




As  the  work  in  China  grew  and  was 
crowned  with  success,  the  missionary  force 
began  to  lift  its  eyes  unto  other  fields.  The 
General  Board  of  Missions  had  opened  work 
in  Seoul,  Korea,  in  1896,  and  the  Woman's 
Board  of  Foreign  Missions  followed  in  1897. 
Since  1887  Mrs.  J.  P.  Campbell  had  served  in 
China,  working  in  turn  as  music  teacher, 
schoolroom  principal,  assistant  in  the  hospi 
tal  (for  a  time  in  full  charge),  and  as  evan 
gelistic  worker  among  women.  When  the  call 
came  from  the  Woman's  Board  to  pioneer 
work  in  Korea  she  responded  gladly,  taking 
with  her  an  adopted  Chinese  daughter,  Miss 
Dora  Yui.  They  lived  for  a  time  in  the  home 
of  Dr.  C.  F.  Reid.  Miss  Yui  soon  learned  the 
Korean  language,  and  she  and  Dr.  Reid  took 
turns  at  holding  Sunday  services  in  Mrs. 
Reid's  parlor.  When  Mr.  Collier  was  trans 
ferred  to  Songdo,  Mrs.  Campbell  and  Miss 



Yui  moved  into  the  house  which  he  had  oc 
cupied  in  Seoul,  remaining  there  for  one  year. 

Carolina  Institute. 

At  the  end  of  that  time  the  Baptist  Mission, 
located  in  the  northern  part  of  Seoul,  was 
withdrawing,  and  Mrs.  Campbell,  seeing  that 
her  present  work  was  overlapping  with  that 
of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  purchased 
the  Baptist  property,  which  was  located  one 
mile  from  the  General  Board  compound.  It 
was  necessary  to  act  before  authorization 
could  be  secured  from  her  home  Board,  so  she 
made  the  purchase  at  her  own  risk.  Her 
faith  was  rewarded  and,  as  in  China,  so  in 
Korea,  the  first  mission  center  w^as  made  pos 
sible  through  the  gift  of  \vedding  diamonds. 
This  time  Mrs.  Toberman,  of  Los  Angeles, 
was  the  giver.  The  Baptists  left  the  house  on 
Saturday  evening,  August  I,  1898,  and  Mrs. 
Campbell,  in  company  with  a  Korean  woman 
carrying  only  a  few  necessary  articles,  went 
over  to  occupy  it  at  once  in  order  to  save  the 
property  from  possible  damage.  Miss  Yui 
came  on  Sunday  writh  a  fresh  supply  of  food, 
and  they  moved  in  on  Monday.  The  main 
building  was  a  finely  constructed  Korean  resi- 


dence,  having  been  built  for  the  Minister  of 
Finance.  There  were  other  houses  on  the 
place,  which  were  renovated  for  school  pur 
poses.  A  small  dispensary  was  first  opened, 
which  was  financed  by  Mrs.  Campbell  herself. 
The  real  work,  however,  was  begun  in  October, 
when  the  school  was  opened  with  three  pupils. 
Mrs.  Campbell  writes: 

It  was  not  long  before  we  had  twenty-one  pupils ; 
these,  however,  were  the  children  of  the  serving  class 
only,  those  who  were  not  wanted  in  the  homes  where 
their  parents  served.  The  very  first  pupil  to  enter  our 
school  was  the  little  daughter  of  Dr.  Reid's  gateman, 
who  later  became  one  of  the  best  and  most  intelligent 
Bible  women  in  the  mission. 

The  women  of  Korea  for  five  hunc'red  years  had 
been  denied  education  and  any  knowledge  of  the  out 
side  world.  They  were,  of  course,  prejudiced  against 
mission  schools,  but  were  not  long  in  seeing  that  this 
educated  lower  class  of  girls  would  soon  be  the  su 
perior  women  mentally.  Because  of  this  they  gradually 
decided  to  enter  the  school  and  study  side  by  side  with 
the  girls  of  the  lower  class. 

The  school  was  of  course  primary,  but,  even  so,  re 
quired  all  of  the  inventive  genius  of  the  missionaries 
to  devise  ways  and  means  to  impart  knowledge  with 
out  equipment.  The  Catechism  and  portions  of  the 
New  Testament  had  been  translated  into  the  Korean 
vernacular ;  except  for  these  there  were  no  Western 
books  available.  The  difficulty  was  overcome  by  plac 
ing  the  lesson  on  the  blackboard  and  having  it  copied 


on  sheets  Oi  paper,  a  copy  for  each  child,  thus  forming 

In  a  few  years  the  school  was  full  to  over 
flowing,  and  several  adjoining  houses  were 
purchased  and  new  ones  erected.  There  were 
no  architects  in  Seoul  and  the  men  of  the 
mission  were  rushed  with  their  own  work,  so 
it  devolved  upon  Mrs.  Campbell  and  a  Korean 
carpenter,  who  had  never  constructed  any  but 
mud  cottages,  to  build  a  new  eight-room,  two- 
story,  brick  house.  Mrs.  Campbell  says  of 
this  experience: 

The  amusing  incidents  connected  with  this  building 
and  its  construction  would  be  a  fit  subject  for  a  comedy 
en  the  screen.  The  palace  towers  were  immediately  in 
front  of  the  school  property,  and  superstition  caused 
the  emperor  to  believe  that  the  misfortunes  befalling 
his  empire  were  caused  by  the  presence  of  the  Western 
ers.  This  two-story  house,  he  thought,  offended  the 
gods  of  the  air.  Women  attendants  from  the  palace 
called  in  style  and  insisted  upon  looking  from  the  upper 
story  windows,  their  object  evidently  being  to  peer 
within  the  palace  walls. 

The  Sunday  services  were  conducted  in  the 
rooms  of  this  house  until  the  chapel  was 
built  within  the  walls  of  the  school  compound. 
These  were  a  great  contrast  to  the  demon 
worship  carried  on  in  the  district.  In  1899 
.Bishop  Wilson  baptized  seven  women  in  the 


Cha-kol  home  parlor.  (Cha-kol  was  the  name 
of  the  district  in  the  northern  section  of  the 
city,  and  the  school  compound  was  called  the 
Cha-kol  compound.)  These  seven  women 
were  the  direct  result  of  the  woman's  work 
and  the  nucleus  of  a  new  Church.  In  1910 
this  Church  numbered  five  hundred  converts 
from  heathenism.  The  Sunday  before  Mrs. 
Campbell  left  for  America,  in  1910,  ninety 
were  baptized  at  the  morning  service. 

When  the  Russo-Japanese  War  broke  out, 
United  States  ministers  ordered  all  the  mis 
sionaries  to  Seoul,  where  they  were  to  remain 
until  peace  was  established.  Mrs.  Campbell 
placed  her  school  in  the  hands  of  the  five 
workers  then  on  the  field  and  returned  to  the 
United  States,  where  she  helped  in  securing 
money  to  build  a  home  in  Songdo  and  to  add 
to  the  property  in  Seoul.  The  school  had  at 
that  time  increased  to  an  enrollment  of  sev 
enty-eight  dormitory  pupils  and  a  number  of 
day  pupils. 

The  location,  however,  was  not  satisfactory, 
as  it  was  too  near  the  canal.  In  1907,  there 
fore,  a  lot  was  purchased  on  a  hill  command 
ing  a  view  of  the  city ;  and  several  years  later 
a  home  for  missionaries,  a  dormitory  for  a 


limited  number  of  boarders,  and  a  day  school 
were  built.  In  1916  Miss  Lillian  Nichols  was 
placed  in  charge.  Miss  Ida  Hankins  and  Miss 
Bertha  Smith,  each  in  turn,  served  as  princi 
pal.  Like  the  other  schools  of  the  Council, 
Carolina  Institute  made  a  strong  impression 
upon  the  life  of  Korea;  but  the  tragedy  of  the 
revolution  in  1919  greatly  endangered  the 
work.  Because  of  the  Student  Self-Determi- 
nation  Movement,  schools  were  opened  and 
closed  again  and  again  during  that  year  and 
the  year  following.  It  was  a  period  of  heavy 
strain  and  extreme  anxiety  for  the  mission 
aries,  but  their  efforts  to  redeem  and  give  to 
Korea  the  liberty  and  redemption  of  Jesus 
Christ  never  ceased. 

Union  Bible  School. 

The  plans  of  the  Council  for  enlargement 
of  the  work  went  forward  in  the  face  of  all 
the  difficulties,  one  of  the  most  far-reaching 
being  that  of  the  Union  Bible  Training  School 
in  Seoul.  The  Methodist  Episcopal  Church 
was  just  completing  a  beautiful  Bible  school 
building,  and  at  the  meeting  of  the  Council 
in  1920,  it  was  voted  to  enter  with  them  into 
a  union  plan  upon  a  fifty-fifty  basis  in  build- 


ing,  equipment,  and  workers.    This  was  made 
possible  through  Centenary  funds. 


Hoist  on  Institute. 

In  1899  Miss  Fannie  Hinds  and  Miss  Ar- 
rena  Carroll  were  transferred  from  Mrs. 
Campbell's  school  to  take  charge  of  woman's 
work  in  Songdo.  These  missionaries  had  a 
bedroom  each  and,  in  addition,  a  kitchen  and 
dining  room.  Class  after  class,  numbering 
between  fifty  and  sixty  women,  met  in  these 
bedrooms  all  during  the  day.  Later,  day 
schools  for  boys  were  opened  in  both  the 
north  and  south  wards  of  the  city.  The  story 
of  the  establishment  of  the  girls'  school  is 
especially  interesting.  One  day,  when  the  mis 
sionaries  were  away  attending  a  meeting,  the 
Christian  Koreans  were  having  a  picnic,  at 
which  time  it  was  suggested  that  a  school  for 
girls  was  needed.  A  collection  was  accordingly 
taken,  and  a  sufficient  amount  of  money  to 
pay  a  needed  teacher  for  three  months  was 
handed  over  to  the  missionaries  when  they 
returned.  As  a  result,  in  1903,  a  school  with 
a  few  pupils  in  attendance  was  opened  in  a 
Korean  building,  and  one  of  Mrs.  Campbell's 


best  pupils  from  Seoul  was  employed  as  teach 

In  1905  a  boarding  school  was  opened  in  a 
conventional  Korean  house  which,  according 
to  Korean  custom,  was  placed  near  the  foot 
of  the  hill.  Like  all  Korean  houses,  the  par 
titions  were  constructed  of  paper  and  could 
easily  be  removed.  A  sufficient  number  of 
partitions  was  taken  out  to  form  a  room 
twenty-four  by  eight  feet.  For  the  accommo 
dation  of  the  girls,  heavy  comforts  were 
placed  on  the  floor  for  sleeping  purposes,  and 
this  apartment  became  the  sleeping  room  for 
twenty-six  girls.  In  the  morning  the  bedding 
was  aired,  rolled  up,  and  placed  in  an  adjoin 
ing  room.  The  sleeping  apartment  then 
became  a  breakfast  room.  At  the  close  of 
the  meal,  the  tables  were  removed  and  the 
same  room  became  a  recitation  room.  Thus, 
it  is  seen,  that  this  one  apartment  served  in 
turn  as  dormitory,  dining  room,  and  school 

In  1907  a  gift  was  made  by  Dr.  Staley,  of 
Bristol,  Tenn.,  which  made  possible  the  erec 
tion  of  a  new  building.  The  school  was  named 
Holston  Institute  because  of  this  gift  from  the 
Holston  Conference.  The  building  was  a 
handsome  gray  stone  structure  located  on  a 


commanding  hill  in  the  center  of  the  city. 
When  this  location  was  purchased  one  of  the 
wealthiest  Korean  men  in  the  city  called  on 
Mrs.  Campbell,  telling  her  jestingly  that  she 
had  secured  the  most  notorious  devil-worship 
ing  site  in  Korea,  that  the  demons  would 
keep  things  so  lively  that  it  would  frighten  the 
children  away.  She  replied  that  it  would  be  a 
fine  opportunity  to  prove  the  omnipotence  of 
God,  for  he  always  vindicates  the  cause  of 
those  who  trust  him. 

The  school  soon  became  so  crowded  that  a 
primary  building  was  added  in  1918.  The 
next  addition  was  that  of  a  social-religious 
building,  which  became  a  necessity  because  of 
the  Japanese  laws  excluding  religious  teach 
ings  in  the  schools.  The  money  for  this  was 
raised  by  the  South  Carolina  women  and 
named  the  Wightman  Humbert  Chapel.  Miss 
Mabel  Howell,  Executive  Secretary  of  Ori 
ental  Fields,  after  her  visit  to  Korea,  said  of 
Holston  Institute: 

Holston  Institute,  in  Songdo,  with  its  six  hundred 
girls  before  the  revolution,  stands  at  the  head  of  the 
Council's  educational  system  in  Korea.  It  is  a  splen 
did  school.  As  soon  as  possible  the  high-school  de 
partment  should  be  developed,  and  possibly  a  normal 
or  kindergarten  training  school  added.  Miss  Wagner 
has  been  a  wise  leader  in  this  work  through  the  years. 


Because  of  home  conditions,  the  Principal, 
Miss  Ella  Sue  Wagner,  was  compelled  to  re 
turn  to  the  United  States  in  1920.  The  year 
previous,  because  of  the  revolution  and  the 
suffering  of  the  Korean  people,  had  been  one 
of  trial  and  tragedy.  In  her  report  of  that 
year  Miss  Wagner  says : 

Until  March  1,  the  Higher  Common  School  flour 
ished,  and  the  work  of  the  students  and  teachers  was 
most  satisfactory.  Then  suddenly  and  without  warn 
ing  the  Independence  Movement  struck  the  country  like 
a  hurricane,  and  we  found  ourselves  in  the  midst  of 
trouble  and  confusion.  Since  that  time  the  primary 
and  kindergarten  schools  have  been  continued  as  usual, 
but  for  the  past  six  months  the  higher  work  has  been 
closed  and  the  girls  sent  to  their  homes. 

The  Mary  Helm  School. 

The  Mary  Helm  School,  opened  in  1907, 
is  unique  in  that  it  was  established  for  young 
widows  of  the  higher  class  who  had  ambi 
tions  to  attain  lives  of  usefulness  and  yet 
were  too  old  to  enter  the  primary  school  with 
children,  their  ages  varying  from  fourteen  to 
eighteen.  Three  of  these  young  girls  made 
an  appeal  to  Baron  Yun  and,  as  a  result, 
Mrs.  Cram,  the  wife  of  W.  G.  Cram,  mission 
ary  under  appointment  of  the  General  Board, 


opened  a  school  in  her  own  home.  The  teach 
ing  was  done  at  night  because  of  the  custom 
which  prohibited  the  girls  from  appearing  on 
the  street  in  the  day  time.  After  a  time  a 
home  was  secured  in  which  a  number  of  the 
pupils  lived,  buying  their  own  food  and  doing 
their  own  work.  The  school  continued  to  be 
taught  in  Mrs.  Cram's  sitting  room  until  the 
Crams  moved  into  their  new  home,  at  which 
time  a  place  was  provided  for  the  purpose. 

The  work  was  begun  without  funds,  but 
when  Mrs.  Truehart  made  an  appeal  there 
were  numbers  of  responses,  among  them  a 
contribution  from  Miss  Bennett  which  came 
with  the  suggestion  that  the  school  bear  the 
namQ  of  Miss  Mary  Helm,  former  Editor  of 
Our  Homes.  In  1909  the  school  was  trans 
ferred  to  the  compound  of  the  Holston  In 
stitute  and  placed  under  the  management  of 
the  missionaries.  It  was  later  renamed  the 
Mary  Helm  Industrial  Department  of  Holston 
Institute,  the  change  being  made  to  meet 
Japanese  regulations.  At  first  it  was  con 
ducted  in  a  Korean  building,  the  same  room 
being  used  for  both  bedroom  and  classroom 
purposes.  In  1914,  however,  a  better  build 
ing  was  provided. 



Lucy  Cuninggim  Industrial  School. 

In  1901  Miss  Carroll  and  Miss  Knowles 
were  appointed  to  open  work  in  Wonsan, 
property  having  been  purchased  from  the 
Methodist  Episcopal  Church.  It  took  them 
just  one  week  to  cross  the  country  in  Korean 
sedan  chairs.  One  can  imagine  the  hardship 
of  riding,  day  after  day,  in  the  uncomfortable 
position  of  sitting  on  one's  feet.  The  prop 
erty  in  which  the  school  at  Wonsan  was  be 
gun  was  attractive  and  beautiful,  but  it  was 
necessary  to  build  dormitories  before  the  work 
could  be  made  effective.  The  North  Carolina 
Conference  women  contributed  their  thank 
offering  to  this  enlargement  and  gave  to  the 
school  the  name  Lucy  Cuninggim  in  mem 
ory  of  one  of  their  honored  workers.  The 
school  prospered  and  soon  outgrew  its  quar 
ters.  Because  of  its  distance  from  the  church 
it  was  later  deemed  wise  to  move  to  another 
part  of  the  city.  A  beautiful  location  near 
the  church  was  selected,  and  a  home  for  the 
missionaries  and  a  building  for  the  school 
were  erected.  The  South  Georgia  Conference 
furnished  the  money,  but  the  school  retained 
its  original  name.  In  1917  the  enrollment 


numbered  127  and  the  seven  branches,  or 
county  schools,  numbered  132,  making  a  total 
enrollment  of  269. 

In  1917  the  plan  of  the  work  was  changed. 
The  principal,  Miss  Hallie  Buie,  writes: 

The  greatest  change  in  our  work  this  year  has  been 
that  of  giving  up  the  advanced  grades  of  the  Lucy 
Cuninggim  Girls'  School,  in  Wonsan,  and  of  establish 
ing  the  industrial  school  for  girls  and  women  in  its 
stead.  When  one  sees  the  life  of  drudgery  and  help 
lessness  led  by  most  of  the  women  and  girls  in  Korea, 
the  need  of  a  school  that  will  teach  them  something 
whereby  they  can  earn  their  own  living  and  be  self- 
respecting  and  independent  is  keenly  felt.  In  the  fall 
of  1916,  at  our  annual  mission  meeting,  it  was  decided 
that,  if  the  Council  so  granted,  the  Lucy  Cuninggim 
Girls'  School  building  in  Wonsan  be  used  for  a  mis 
sion  industrial  school  for  girls  and  women  and  that 
the  girls  in  the  high-school  department  in  Wonsan  be 
sent  to  Holston  Institute,  in  Songdo.  This  decision  met 
with  the  approval  of  Misses  Bennett  and  Head,  who 
were  then  on  the  field. 

In  the  spring  of  1917  a  committee  was  appointed  to 
investigate  the  situation  and  to  determine  just  what 
kind  of  an  industrial  school  we  should  have.  The 
committee,  after  thorough  investigation,  unanimously 
came  to  the  following  conclusions:  (1)  That  at  first 
only  one  line  of  work  should  be  undertaken  and  that 
we  proceed  to  make  the  training  in  that  line  as  efficient 
as  possible ;  (2)  that  said  line  should  be  one  that  would 
be  a  benefit  to  the  women  of  the  whole  territory  occu 
pied  by  our  mission;  (3)  That  it  should  be  a  line  that 
would  assure  us  the  support  and  confidence  of  the  gov 
ernment  as  well  as  one  that  would  be  in  harmony  with 


their  plans  for  the  development  of  the  Korean  people. 
We  decided  that  nothing  would  so  nearly  satisfy  the 
position  set  forth  in  the  above  three  principles  as  seri 
culture.  As  soon  as  these  three  plans  were  indorsed 
by  the  Council,  steps  were  taken  to  carry  them  out. 
In  March,  1918,  the  mulberry  trees  were  all  planted 
and  are  growing  beautifully.  The  school  was  opened 
in  April,  1918,  and  we  soon  had  an  enrollment  of  twenty 
pupils.  The  forenoons  are  spent  in  study  and  the  after 
noons  in  work.  The  literary  work  is  divided  into  three 
grades,  with  a  special  or  preparatory  year  for  the  ones 
who  have  had  very  little  chance  to  study.  The  indus 
trial  work  is  also  divided  into  a  course  of  three  years. 

The  newly  organized  school  ran  only  a  few 
months,  however,  and  was  closed  on  account 
of  the  revolution.  Concerning  the  future 
Miss  Howell  says: 

There  is  a  very  great  field  for  industrial  education 
in  Korea,  and  this  institution  needs  special  care.  The 
greatest  need,  and  an  immediate  one.  is  a  missionary 
trained  along  textile  lines.  Such  a  one  must  be  found 
and  trained  if  necessary. 

The  Alice  Cobb  Bible  School. 

The  Alice  Cobb  Bible  School  was  located 
on  the  same  compound  with  the  Lucy  Cun- 
inggim.  The  building,  furnished  by  the 
South  Georgia  Conference  and  named  in  hon 
or  of  Mrs.  Cobb,  at  one  time  Foreign  Depart 
ment  Secretary  of  the  Council,  was  construct 
ed  in  simple  Korean  style,  but  appropriate  to 


the  purpose  for  which  it  was  designed.  Be 
fore  the  building  was  erected  the  nucleus  of 
the  school  had  been  formed  by  the  little  band 
of  women  who  were  taught  by  Mrs.  J.  B. 
Ross,  formerly  Miss  Knowles,  a  missionary 
under  appointment,  in  her  own  home.  Miss 
Kate  Cooper,  principal  of  the  Alice  Cobb  Bi 
ble  School,  says  of  the  institution: 

The  winter  months  I  spend  in  Bible  institute  work, 
which  is  always  a  joy,  for  I  love  to  teach  the  Bible. 
We  work  together  with  the  Canadian  Presbyterians  in 
Wonsan,  and  the  missionaries  who  give  their  time  to 
the  institute  are  splendid  Bible  teachers.  One  course 
covers  five  years  of  three  months  each.  Thirty-three 
books  of  the  Bible  we  teach  in  full  and  the  other  half 
by  outlines.  During  the  time  the  women  are  not  study 
ing  they  have  an  intermediate  reading  course,  which 
consists  of  the  books  of  the  Bible  they  are  to  take  the 
following  term  in  outlines.  Besides  the  Bible,  we  teach 
writing,  hygiene,  simple  geography,  arithmetic,  and 
singing.  We  have  weekly  lectures  from  Korean  pas 
tors  and  missionaries -on  missions,  Church  history,  and 
other  helpful  subjects.  In  1918  we  had  an  enrollment 
of  fifty-one,  nine  of  whom  were  graduated  in  April. 
It  is  a  rule  of  our  mission  that  our  Bible  women  must 
graduate  from  the  institute  before  they  can  be  accepted 
as  fully  qualified  Bible  women.  Some  of  the  women 
leaders  in  the  country  Churches  are  those  who  have 
studied  at  our  institute.  It  is  our  aim  to  have  at  least 
one  woman  from  each  Church  to  study  and  go  back 
to  her  own  congregation  to  take  charge  of  the  Bible 



The  great  revival  which  broke  out  in  Korea 
in  1904  is  of  special  interest  to  the  women  of 
Southern  Methodism  because  of  its  origin. 
Miss  Knowles  went  to  Korea  filled  with  a  burn 
ing  zeal  for  the  Master's  work.  She  felt  in 
starting  her  work  in  Wonsan  that  they,  as  mis 
sionaries,  were  not  able  to  grasp  the  great 
spiritual  privileges  which  were  before  them. 
She  and  others  formed  a  compact  to  pray 
daily  that  God  would  give  the  missionaries 
power  to  bring  about  a  great  revival.  Dr. 
Hardy  was  asked  to  lead  the  missionaries  of 
Wonsan  in  a  week  of  Bible  study.  As  he 
prepared  for  this  work,  a  deep  conviction  of 
his  own  need  overpowered  him  and  he  spent 
one  whole  night  on  his  knees  in  prayer.  At 
early  dawn  there  came  to  him  a  great  blessing 
and  he  arose  from  his  knees  filled  with  a  new 
power,  which  was  recognized  by  all  who  met 
him  that  morning.  He  rang  the  chapel  "bell 
and  called  the  Korean  Christians  together, 
telling  them  of  the  night's  experience,  con 
fessing  his  own  former  lack  of  power.  Those 
present,  grasping  his  meaning,  saw  the  empti 
ness  of  their  own  lives  and  prayed  for  forgive 
ness.  Days  of  prayer  and  confession  followed. 
Finally  there  came  upon  them  such  a  bap- 


tism  of  power  that  they  went  forth  from  piace 
to  place  and  led  others  into  the  same  experi 
ence.  The  revival  swept  throughout  the 
Church  in  Korea  and  thousands  were  con 

The  revival  spirit  in  Korea  made  the  wom 
an's  evangelistic  work  one  of  the  most  suc 
cessful  features  of  the  mission.  In  Seoul 
much  of  this  work  was  done  in  connection 
with  the  Churches,  and  under  the  wise  lead 
ership  of  Mrs.  Campbell  and  Miss  Mamie 
Myers  it  took  on  many  institutional  features. 
Out  from  Songdo,  the  greatest  Southern  Meth 
odist  center  in  Korea,  there  radiated  into  the 
country  districts  a  great  spirit  of  evangelism. 

One  of  the  most  successful  evangelistic  ef 
forts  was  carried  on  in  Choon  Chun.  This 
work  was  opened  in  1911  by  Miss  Laura  Ed 
wards  and  Miss  Alice  Dean  Noyes.  Their 
first  trip  into  this  district,  which  required 
three  days,  was  made  on  pack  horses.  All  their 
bedding,  food,  cooking  utensils,  and  cloth 
ing  went  to  make  up  the  packs,  which  they 
carried  with  them.  The  rural  evangelistic 
work  was  conducted  on  the  circuit  plan,  each 
missionary  caring  for  a  certain  number  of 
charges  and  the  Bible  women  going  out  two 
by  two. 


From  the  very  beginning,  a  strong  emphasis 
was  placed  upon  rural  evangelistic  work,  while 
the  schools  received  the  emphasis  in  the  great 
city  centers.  When  Miss  Howell  visited  the 
field  in  1919-20  she  urged  an  immediate  for 
ward  movement  in  city  evangelism  in  Songdo, 
Seoul,  and  Wonsan.  City  centers  had  been 
contemplated  for  a  number  of  years,  and  at  the 
Council  meeting  in  1920  Centenary  askings 
were  made  available  to  go  forward  with  these 
buildings  in  Seoul  and  Songdo.  Provision 
was  also  made  for  the  purchase  of  land  in 
Wonsan  upon  which  a  building  was  to  be  erect 
ed  in  the  near  future. 


One  of  the  most  hopeful  results  of  the  mis 
sionary  work  in  Korea  was  evidenced  by  the 
organization  of  missionary  societies  in  the  na 
tive  Churches.  The  Bible  women,  as  they 
itinerated  from  place  to  place,  gave  these  so 
cieties  special  attention.  Special  programs 
were  prepared  each  year  by  some  one  of  the 
missionaries.  Most  of  the  society  members 
tithed  or  gave  systematically.  One-tenth  of 
all  their  collections  went  to  the  work  in  Africa 
and  the  rest  of  the  money  was  used  for  the 
support  of  native  Bible  women  in  the  heathen 


villages  of  Korea.  The  following  is  a  letter 
sent  by  the  women  of  the  Wonsan  District  to 
the  Woman's  Missionary  Society  in  Africa: 

WONSAN,  KOREA,  April  5,  1920. 

To  the  Friends  of  the  Woman's  Missionary  Society  in 
Africa — Greetings  from  the  Woman's  Missionary  So 
ciety  in  Wonsan,  Korea. 

We,  the  servants  of  Jesus  Christ,  according  to  the 
will  of  God,  from  our  District  Society  in  Hamkyung 
South  Province,  Wonsan,  Korea,  send  to  all  the  saints 
in  Africa,  even  to  all  who  are  in  Christ  Jesus,  our 
heartiest  greetings  with  the  hope  that  you  have  received 
from  God,  the  Father,  and  his  Son,  Jesus  Christ,  the 
grace  and  peace  he  has  promised  to  all  who  are  faith 
ful,  and  that  your  hope  is  founded  on  an  eternal  foun 
dation,  and  that  your  soul  has  found  eternal  salvation. 
With  the  wish  that  you  may  sing  the  everlasting  songs 
and  praise  God  through  all  eternity  we,  even  though 
we  are  separated  from  you  by  miles  and  miles,  pray 
for  you  and  feel  that  Christ  is  hearing  and  answering 
in  your  behalf. 

Our  Saviour,  Jesus  Christ,  came  into  this  world 
nineteen  hundred  and  twenty  years  ago  and  gave  him 
self  once  to  die  on  the  cress  for  the  sins  of  all  the 
world.  Thus  bearing  the  sins  of  all  mankind,  he  made 
all  who  believe  on  him  to  become  the  children  of  the 
Holy  God,  and  to  all  the  saints  alike  he  pours  forth 
his  Holy  Spirit  in  order  that  they  may  have  the  power 
to  do  his  will.  Following  the  example  of  our  Lord, 
we,  too,  should  love  with  all  our  hearts,  soul,  and 
strength  and  serve  our  God  as  he  directs.  Let  us  give 
all  we  have  to  him  and  love  him  with  all  our  hearts. 

Like  Peter  and  John,  even  though  we  have  not  the 
gold  and  silver  to  give  in  the  name  of  Jesus  Christ, 


we  can  do  many  deeds  of  mercy.  As  a  result  of  the 
Centenary  Movement  at  this  time  the  work  of  the  Lord 
is  daily  growing  in  strength,  and  the  faith  of  many  is 
becoming  stronger.  Also  patience,  temperance,  brother 
ly  love,  and  unity  are  increasing  in  force.  For  all  this 
we  cannot  give  thanks  enough. 

But  notwithstanding  all  the  joys  and  blessings  that 
God  so  freely  bestows  here  in  Korea,  we  are  under 
going  a  severe  trial,  and  to  all  of  you  who  love  us  we 
earnestly  beseech  that  you  will  pray  unceasingly  to  the 
Father  of  light,  who  is  altogether  just  and  holy.  We 
hope  you  will  pray  much  and  often,  for  we  need  your 
prayers.  Like  the  precious  stones  hidden  away  in  the 
mountains  that  you  have  to  polish  for  the  brilliant 
colors  to  appear  and  like  the  trees  that  grow  better  for 
the  pruning,  God  means  that  all  our  trials  shall  work 
together  for  good,  and  he  is  now  refining  us  that  his 
glory  may  appear. 

Although  we  are  sending  only  the  small  amount  of 
$11.93,  we  hope  you  will  receive  it  in  love  and  use  it 
as  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ  may  direct. 

If  we  look  at  the  world,  there  is  so  much  sorrow  on 
every  hand ;  but  if  we  endure  as  seeing  Him  who  is 
invisible,  we  shall  bring  forth  the  fruits  of  righteous 
ness  and  peace.  Our  hope  is  in  the  Captain  of  our 
salvation,  who  is  also  the  Author  and  Finisher  of  our 

We  pray  for  you  that  you  may  bring  many  of  your 
African  sisters  to  Jesus  Christ  and  that  they  may  re 
ceive  the  crown  of  life  which  Jesus  has  promised  to 
all  who  are  true  and  faithful.  This  is  our  prayer  for 
you,  so  we  will  close  with  this  message  for  this  time. 

With  love, 




IN  1885  the  General  Board  of  Missions 
passed  a  resolution  authorizing  the  establish 
ment  of  a  mission  in  Japan.  In  July  of  the 
following  year  Dr.  and  Mrs.  J.  W.  Lambuth 
and  Dr.  O.  A.  Dukes  arrived  in  Kobe.  Miss 
Maud  Bonnell  says  of  this  adventure:  "It 
took  hearts  made  brave  by  long  years  of  serv 
ice  in  China  to  turn  to  a  new  country,  where 
the  people  and  the  language  were  wholly  un 
known.  'Go  ye  into  all  the  world  and  preach 
the  gospel  to  the  whole  creation'  must  have 
sounded  in  their  ears  and  nerved  them  to  the 
new  undertaking."  The  territory  chosen  for 
this  task  comprised  the  ten  provinces  bordering 
on  the  Inland  Sea  and  on  the  three  islands  of 
Hondo,  Shikoku,  and  Kyushu,  which,  in  the 
census  of  1909,  had  a  population  of  approxi 
mately  13,000,000.  Upon  landing  in  Kobe 
the  missonaries  made  their  home  at  No.  47  in 
the  foreign  concession  and  began  their  work 
by  teaching  English  to  a  few  Japanese  boys 
in  a  night  school. 



Mrs.  Lambuth,  who  had  pioneered  woman's 
work  in  China,  undertook  with  the  same  tire 
less  devotion  and  energy  to  open  the  way  for 
the  women  in  Japan.  That  hers  was  no  easy 
task  is  shown  by  these  words  from  her  son, 
Bishop  J.  W.  Lambuth: 

There  were  no  women  who  seemed  to  be  accessible, 
and  it  was  months  before  any  Japanese  woman  united 
with  the  Church.  A  male  cook,  who  was  a  Congrega- 
tionalist,  led  the  morning  prayer  in  the  family  circle 
until  the  new  missionaries  had  acquired  the  language. 
One  of  his  petitions,  which  he  made  daily,  was :  "O 
Lord,  have  mercy  on  these  poor  Methodists  and  enlarge 
their  borders,  for  they  have  no  women  in  their  mem 

In  the  year  following  her  arrival  in  Kobe, 
Mrs.  Lambuth  opened  a  day  school  for  women 
with  eleven  in  attendance.  She  also  organized 
a  weekly  class  for  women  and  children.  Three 
years  later,  in  1890,  the  Japan  Mission  passed 
a  resolution  calling  for  the  establishment  of  a 
Bible  school  in  Kobe.  In  accordance  with  this 
action,  the  Woman's  Bible  Training  School 
was  opened  in  1891  with  six  pupils  in  at 
tendance.  Mrs.  Lambuth  had  supervision,  but 
Miss  May  Bice  (later  Mrs.  W.  A.  Davis) 
was  placed  in  charge.  The  records  show  that 
the  few  years  which  followed  were  filled  with 


difficulties,  the  school  even  being  closed  a  part 
of  the  time. 

On  the  same  compound  with  the  Bible 
school,  Mrs.  Lambuth  opened  three  other 
schools — namely,  Industrial  School,  where 
women  were  taught  embroidery,  sewing,  mu 
sic,  and  the  Bible;  Kobe  Institute,  where  the 
children  of  Asiatic  and  European  parentage 
were  taught;  and  Palmore  Institute,  which 
was  a  night  school  for  women.  In  1899  the 
Industrial  School  was  closed,  and  in  1905 
Kobe  Institute  also  was  closed,  both  for  lack 
of  teachers.  Palmore  Institute  was  continued, 
however,  but  in  1907  was  provided  with  quar 
ters  of  its  own.  Thus  the  compound  was  left 
free  for  the  use  of  the  Bible  school. 

In  1899  Miss  Ida  Worth  was  made  Prin 
cipal  and  continued  in  this  position  until  1905. 
She  was  succeeded  by  Miss  Maud  Bonnell, 
who  remained  at  the  head  of  the  institution 
for  ten  years.  Her  strong  personality  and 
her  great  spiritual  power  made  these  years 
count  large  for  the  kingdom  of  righteousness 
in  Japan. 

The  early  evangelistic  work  for  women  in 
Japan  consisted  of  special  evangelistic  serv 
ices,  Bible  classes,  mothers'  meetings,  cooking 
classes,  English  and  industrial  classes,  Sun- 


day  schools,  and  kindergartens.  The  women 
who  could  give  their  entire  time  were  so  few 
that  the  services  of  the  missionaries'  wives 
and  the  teachers  in  the  schools  were  a  neces 
sity.  These  sought  contact  with  the  women 
of  Japan  through  every  possible  avenue. 

In  1891  Miss  Kate  Harlan,  working  in 
Yamaguchi,  Japan,  wrote: 

We  proposed  to  teach  the  women  anything  they 
wished  to  learn — crocheting,  knitting,  foreign  cooking, 
English — anything  to  induce  them  to  come,  that  we 
might  have  an  opportunity  to  teach  them  the  one  thing 
of  importance,  the  one  thing  they  need  to  learn ;  but, 
alas !  the  one  thing  of  which  they  do  not  feel  their 
need,  the  Word  of  God,  the  truth  as  it  is  in  Christ 
Jesus  our  Lord.  They  were  hard  to  reach,  slow  to 
come,  few  in  number,  and  very  irregular.  Frequently 
as  soon  as  one  began  to  take  any  interest  the  head  of 
the  house  would  assert  his  authority,  and  she  was  not 
allowed  to  come  any  more. 


The  work  of  the  General  Board  in  its  other 
departments  was  of  the  highest  rank,  but  its 
woman's  work  was  wholly  inadequate.  This 
is  easily  understood  when  we  consider  the 
lack  of  equipment,  the  small  working  force  on 
the  field,  and  the  absence  of  an  administrative 
force  of  women  at  the  home  base.  On  ac 
count  of  this  lack  the  entire  mission  was  being 



crippled.  The  prayer  of  the  cook,  "O  Lord, 
have  mercy  on  these  poor  Methodists,  for  they 
have  no  women  in  their  membership,"  was  in 
reality  still  the  prayer  of  many  hearts  as  late 
as  the  year  1914. 

The  Japan  Mission  had  continued  to  entreat 
the  General  Board  to  send  out  single  women 
as  evangelistic  workers,  but  that  year  found 
only  two  engaged  exclusively  in  this  work. 
It  was  then  that  the  mission  unanimously  de 
cided  to  ask  the  Woman's  Missionary  Council 
to  enter  Japan.  Bishop  Atkins  visited  Japan 
that  year,  and  the  following  year,  1915,  at 
tended  the  meeting  of  the  Woman's  Mission 
ary  Council,  making  an  eloquent  appeal  for 
the  women  and  children  of  Japan  and  pleading 
for  the  Council's  entrance  into  Japan  with  its 
gifts  of  money  and  workers  and  its  admin 
istrative  talents.  The  result  was  that  the  fol 
lowing  action  was  taken: 

We  recommend:  1.  That  the  Woman's  Missionary 
Council  assume  the  support  of  the  woman's  evangelis- 
tice  work  in  Japan  on  condition  that  the  Board  of  Mis 
sions  continue  its  usual  appropriation  to  Fhat  field. 
2.  That  the  Council  recommend  two  new  missionaries 
for  that  field. 

Miss  Annette  Gist  and  Miss  Charlie  Hol 
land  were  appointed  that  same  year  as  mis- 


sionaries  to  Japan.  Miss  Ida  Worth,  Miss 
Maud  Bonnell,  Miss  Nellie  Bennett,  Miss 
Annie  Belle  Williams,  and  Miss  Ethel  New- 
comb  were  transferred  from  the  Board  of 
Missions,  General  Work,  to  the  Woman's 
Missionary  Council.  Miss  Mabel  Whitehead 
and  Miss  Katherine  Hatcher  were  sent  out  in 
1917  and  Miss  Jean  Callahan,  Miss  Rubie  Van 
Hooser,  and  Miss  Mary  Searcy  in  1920. 

When  the  Council  entered  Japan  Miss 
Maud  Bonnell  was  still  in  charge  of  the  Lam- 
buth  Bible  School.  The  following  year,  how 
ever,  she  came  home  on  her  furlough,  much 
broken  in  health,  and  was  never  able  to  return. 
Miss  Ida  Shannon,  of  the  Hiroshima  Girls' 
School,  was  made  acting  principal.  Her  re 
port  of  that  year  says: 

The  first  Bible  woman  was  graduated  in  1905.  Up 
to  1915  the  school  has  graduated  thirty-seven,  of  whom 
twenty-two  are  in  active  service  and  five  are  wives  of 
preachers.  The  present  enrollment  is  fifteen.  The 
women  stay  in  the  school  three  years,  studying  the 
Bible  and  kindred  subjects,  music,  and  practical  work. 
The  change  that  takes  place  in  them  during  that  time 
is  nothing  short  of  marvelous.  After  they  go  out  into 
service,  the  chief  need  is  for  better  and  closer  super 
vision  on  the  part  of  women  missionaries. 

In    1917   Miss  Annie  Belle   Williams  was 


made  principal.     In  her  report  of   1919  she 

This  year  has  added  two  to  the  list  of  graduates 
which  before  numbered  fifty.  The  opening  of  another 
school  year  in  April  brought  in  six  new  students,  mak 
ing  our  number  twelve.  The  new  class  was  an  interest 
ing  one  for  several  reasons:  (1)  Not  one  of  them  came 
from  our  own  missionary  territory;  (2)  they  repre 
sented  four  different  missions ;  and  (3)  most  of  them 
had  had  some  experience  in  a  professional  or  business 
way,  two  of  them  as  teachers  and  one  as  a  nurse.  Five 
of  them  are  on  scholarships.  The  cost  of  keeping  up 
this  school  seems  entirely  out  of  proportion  to  the 
small  number  of  students,  but  we  want  you  to  think 
of  it  as  an  evangelistic  center  as  well  as  a  school. 
Counting  our  own  Sunday  schools,  we  touch  ten  dif 
ferent  centers  in  Kobe  and  its  suburbs. 

The  1920  enrollment  showed  that  the  num 
ber  of  students  had  increased  to  twenty.  At 
this  time  enlargement  of  the  school  was  for 
a  number  of  reasons  imperative:  first,  the  in 
adequacy  of  the  buildings  and  their  unsanitary 
condition;  second,  the  movement  on  foot  to 
move  the  kindergarten  from  Hiroshima  to  the 
Bible  school;  third,  the  demand  for  a  union 
institution;  fourth,  the  action  of  the  General 
Conference  of  the  Methodist  Church  of  Japan 
creating  a  licensed  order  of  women  evangelists. 
In  1919,  when  Miss  Mabel  Howell,  Executive 
Secretary  of  the  Orient,  was  on  the  field,  the 


Japan  Mission  passed  resolutions  asking  that 
the  Council  embrace  in  its  plan  the  training 
of  kindergarten  teachers  and  that  the  proposed 
new  school  be  located  at  Osaka.  It  was  also  re 
quested  that  the  Northern  Methodists  and  the 
Canadian  Methodists  be  asked  to  unite  with 
the  Woman's  Missionary  Council  in  the  build 
ing  and  conduct  of  the  school  in  order  that 
the  whole  of  Japan  Methodism  might  be 
served.  It  was  agreed,  ^however,  that  the 
building  should  not  be  delayed  awaiting  the 
response  of  the  other  Methodisms, 

In  its  1920  session  the  Council  adopted  the 
following  recommendations: 

(1)  That  the  Council  accept  the  responsibility  for 
the  Kindergarten  Normal  Training  School  in  Hiro 
shima,  approve  the  plan  of  uniting  it  with  the  Lambuth 
Memorial  School,  and  establish  an  enlarged  school  of 
high  grade  for  training  Christian  workers.  (2)  That 
the  enlarged  school  be  located  in  Osaka  and  be  known 
as  the  Lambuth  Training  School  for  Christian  Work 
ers.  (3)  That  as  the  Hiroshima  Kindergarten  Normal 
Training  School  is  under  the  supervision  of  Miss  Mar 
garet  Cook,  the  Council  request  the  Board  of  Missions, 
General  Work,  to  release  Miss  Margaret  Cook  to  the 
Council  for  the  purpose  of  assisting  in  establishing  the 
enlarged  school  proposed  for  Osaka,  and  that  the  Sec 
retary  of  the  Orient  present  this  request  to  the  Board 
of  Missions.  (4)  That  the  $8,000  already  on  the  field 
for  the  purchase  of  land  for  the  new  Lambuth  Train 
ing  School  and  the  $18,000  Centenary  askings  for  the 


evangelistic  plant  at  Osaka  be  combined  into  one  fund 
to  be  used  for  the  building  of  the  new  training  school. 

Further  action  was  taken,  transferring  an 
accrued  fund  of  $4,479.50  already  on  the  field 
to  the  building  fund,  this  amount  to  be  used 
for  the  proposed  chapel  in  the  Lambuth  Train 
ing  School  to  be  known  as  the  Maud  Bonnell 

At  the  meeting  of  the  Board  of  Missions 
that  year  the  request  for  the  transfer  of  Miss 
Margaret  Cook  was  granted,  it  being  recog 
nized  that  a  better  policy  would  be  to  train 
the  kindergarten  workers  and  the  Bible  women 
in  the  same  school.  Miss  Katherine  Hatcher, 
who  had  been  the  Council's  representative  in 
the  Hiroshima  Training  School,  was  also 
transferred.  The  removal  of  the  Bible  school 
to  Osaka,  only  one  hour's  ride  by  trolley 
from  Kobe,  was  decided  upon  because  of 
Osaka's  being  a  large  industrial  city  and  hence 
well  suited  as  a  demonstration  center. 

Concerning  the  kindergartens  and  the  evan 
gelistic  centers,  Miss  Maud  Bonnell  writes 
shortly  after  they  were  turned  over  to  the 
Woman's  Missionary  Council  by  the  Board 
of  Missions,  General  Work: 

There  are  six  kindergarteners  in  charge  of  our 
women  at  various  points.  Three  of  these  are  in  Kobe, 


two  at  Oita  and  Beppu,  and  the  other  is  in  Yoshida, 
on  the  island  of  Shikoku.  Oita  is  as  yet  our  only 
woman's  evangelistic  station.  Miss  Ida  M.  Worth  (St. 
Louis  Conference)  went  there  in  1896.  She  began 
teaching  English  and  Bible  to  the  young  people  and 
visiting,  with  her  helper,  in  the  homes.  Soon  she 
opened  a  kindergarten,  which  has  grown  steadily  in 
efficiency  and  favor.  Visits  were  paid  to  the  outlying 
stations,  where  cooking  classes  and  other  women's  and 
children's  meetings  were  held  in  the  chapels  or  in  rented 
rooms.  Miss  Annie  Belle  Williams  (South  Carolina 
Conference)  went  to  the  station  in  1910,  and  with  her 
personal  helper  the  force  was  doubled.  Soon  a  kinder 
garten  was  opened  in  Beppu,  and  other  Sunday  schools 
and  children's  meetings  were  conducted  weekly.  Eight 
stations  were  regularly  visited.  Groups  of  young 
women  working  in  the  telephone  exchange  and  in  a 
yarn  factory,  where  fifteen  hundred  are  employed,  have 
been  reached. 

Because  of  the  lack  of  sufficient  working 
force  and  because  of  conditions  caused  by  the 
World  War,  the  Council  was  unable  to  enter 
into  any  greatly  enlarged  plans.  In  1920, 
however,  the  number  of  kindergartens  had  in 
creased  to  fifteen,  a  home  for  missionaries 
had  been  built  at  Oita,  and  the  plant  itself, 
containing  a  home  for  native  workers,  was 
being  constructed  with  the  first  available  Cen 
tenary  money.  Plans  were  being  projected 
for  the  building  of  the  new  Bible  school  at 
Osaka  and  for  the  utilization  of  the  old 
buildings  in  Kobe  as  a  Christian  social  cen- 


ter.  The  Centenary  askings  included  a  suf 
ficient  sum  of  money  for  the  building  of  evan 
gelistic  centers  in  thirteen  cities  and  the  sup 
port  of  two  missionaries  and  a  number  of 
Bible  women  for  each  of  these  places.  By 
action  of  the  Council,  in  1920,  the  evangelis 
tic  centers  were  given  the  name  "lan-no-Ie," 
meaning  "The  House  of  Comfort  and  Peace." 


In  1920  Miss  Mabel  Howell  reported  con 
cerning  the  Woman's  Missionary  Society  of 
Japan  as  follows: 

The  women  of  the  West  Japan  Conference  are  al 
ready  organized  into  a  Conference  Society.  This  is  the 
Conference  in  which  our  work  is  located.  The  district 
and  local  work  is  pretty  well  developed.  The  two  Con 
ferences  unite  their  gifts  in  the  support  of  a  mission 
ary,  Mr.  Kihara,  in  Siberia.  The  women  of  the  two 
Conferences  of  the  Japan  Methodist  Church  are  taking 
steps  to  unite  organically  so  as  to  form  one  society  for 
all  Japan. 



Oh,  could  we  love  with  the  love  that  pours 

On  this  great  day  through  all  our  doors, 

Could  we  gather  all  in  a  world  embrace, 

Whatever  the  creed,  whatever  the  race, 

Not  once,  nor  twice,  but  all  the  time, 

For  ev'ry  need  and  ev'ry  clime 

The  love  that  knows  all  aims  as  one, 

All  peoples  kin  beneath  the  sun — 

What  a  different  world  this  world  would  be ! 

For  we  should  see  as  the  Christ  would  see, 

If  only  a  magic  way  were  found 

To  make  us  human  the  whole  year  round ! 

— From  "The  Whole  Year  Christmas" 




Collegia  Piracicabano. 
ALMOST  simultaneously  with  the  opening  of 
work  in  China  there  began  to  loom  large  be 
fore  the  newly  organized  Woman's  Mission 
ary  Society  the  urgency  of  the  need  in  Mexico 
and  Brazil.  Indeed,  at  the  very  first  meet 
ing  of  the  General  Executive  Association  in 
1879,  there  was  made  a  contingent  appropria 
tion  of  five  hundred  dollars  for  Brazil.  The 
second  annual  report  of  the  Corresponding 
Secretary  says: 

After  much  correspondence,  it  was  shown  that  the 
appropriation  made  last  May  could  be  judiciously  ap 
plied  in  aiding  the  school  of  Miss  Newman  at  Piraci- 

This  school  had  been  opened  the  year  pre 
vious  by  the  daughter  of  the  Rev.  J.  E.  New 
man,  an  appointee  of  the  General  Board  of 
Missions.  This  same  report  quotes  the  fol 
lowing  from  a  letter  from  the  field: 

Miss  Newman's  school  in  Piracicaba  has  fifteen 
pupils — three  Americans,  one  English,  and  eleven  Bra- 



zilians.  Plan — the  Rev.  J.  E.  Newman  to  remain  as 
ostensible  head  of  the  school  for  protection.  Desired 
appropriation  for  school,  $1,000.  Reasons — we  have 
an  infant  mission  in  Piracicaba  under  an  ex-priest. 
If  he  is  faithful,  we  will  have  a  Church  there  before 
the  close  of  1880. 

At  the  second  annual  meeting  of /the  General 
Executive  Association  of  the  Woman's  Mis 
sionary  Society  one  thousand  dollars  was  ap 
propriated.  The  school,  however,  was  sus 
pended  during  that  year  on  account  of  the 
marriage  of  Miss  Annie  Newman  to  Rev.  J. 
J.  Ransom  and  the  failing  health  of  her  sis 
ter.  Mrs.  Ransom  died  within  a  few  months 
after  her  marriage,  and  the  Rev.  J.  J.  Ran 
som,  returning  to  this  country,  plead  with  the 
women  of  the  Executive  Committee  to  send 
a  missionary  at  once  to  reopen  the  school. 
The  result  was  the  immediate  appointment  of 
Miss  Martha  Watts  who  became  the  pioneer 
representative  of  the  woman's  work  in  Brazil. 

She  reopened  the  school  in  September  of 
1 88 1  in  a  rented  house  of  ten  rooms.  Eight 
een  desks  were  purchased,  but  on  the  open 
ing  day  only  one  pupil  appeared.  The  Jesu 
its  had  begun  to  fear  the  entrance  cf  the 
Protestants  and  had  pledged  fifteen  thousand 
Collars  for  the  establishment  of  a  girls' 


school.     In  spite  of  the  discouraging  begin 
ning,  the  report  of  1883  says: 

The  Collegio  Piracicabano  has  become  an  established 
fact.  It  is  steadily  gaining  the  favor  of  the  people  and 
is  partly  self-sustaining.  The  corner  stone  of  the  new 
building  was  laid  on  February  8,  with  imposing  cere 
monies  in  which  several  prominent  men  of  the  country 
took  part 

The  new  building  was  opened  in  1884  with 
forty-five  pupils.  The  number  soon  increased 
to  seventy. 

Miss  Watts  was  to  Brazil,  in  those  early 
pioneer  days,  what  Miss  Haygood  was  to 
China.  From  the  first  she  had  courted  the 
friendship  and  influence  of  Drs.  Manuel  and 
Prudente  de  Moraes  Barros,  both  of  whom 
were  federal  senators.  Dr.  Prudente  later 
became  President  of  Brazil.  Miss  Watts  had 
adopted  in  her  school  the  public  school  meth 
ods  of  the  United  States;  and  while  Dr.  Pru 
dente  was  Governor  of  the  State  of  Sao  Paulo, 
Collegio  Piracicabano  served  as  his  model  for 
shaping  the  school  system  of  that  State,  which 
later  became  the  most  advanced,  educational 
ly,  throughout  Brazil.  These  leaders  not  on'y 
looked  to  Miss  Watts  for  counsel  and  advice, 
but  were  influential  in  sending  the  daughters 
of  the  leading  families  to  her  to  be  educated. 


In  time,  Collegio  Piraciabana  outgrew  the 
beautiful  spacious  building  which  had  been  lo 
lated  in  the  center  of  the  town,  and  to  en 
large  its  usefulness  the  Martha  Watts  Annex 
was  built.  This  building  provided  an  assem 
bly  room,  classrooms,  and  space  for  the  kin 
dergarten  school.  Miss  M.  L.  Gibson  says: 

The  college  and  the  annex  together  present  the  most 
imposing  structure  in  the  city  and  is  a  splendid  monu 
ment  to  the  woman  whose  name  it  bears. 

Miss  Lily  Stradley  took  charge  in  1898, 
and  through  her  high  aims  and  ability  the 
school  at  Piracicaba  has  been  kept  one  of  the 
leading  girls'  schools  in  all  Brazil.  The  ef 
ficiency  of  the  work  and  its  hold  on  the  peo 
ple  is  set  forth  in  the  following  from  Dr. 
Browning,  Educational  Secretary  of  the  Com 
mittee  on  Latin  America: 

There  is  a  fine  student  body.  The  premises  are  kept 
in  beautiful  order,  and  the  buildings,  modeled  after  the 
old  Southern  mansions  and  set  back  from  the  street 
among  palms  and  other  semitropical  plants,  present  a 
very  pleasing  appearance  to  the  passer-by.  I  visited 
a  number  of  the  classes  and,  so  far  as  one  can  tell  from 
such  a  superficial  examination,  I  judge  that  good  work 
is  being  done.  The  dormitories  were  clean  and  well 
aired,  the  beds  well  made,  and  the  closets  full  o'f  cloth 
ing  neatly  hung  in  order.  A  pleasing  touch  was  that 
of  finding  in  almost  all  the  beds,  especially  in  the  dor- 


mitory  of  the  small  girls,  one  or  more  dolls  neatly 
dressed  and  seemingly  patiently  awaiting  the  return  of 
the  little  mothers  from  the  tasks  of  the  day.  The 
atmosphere  of  the  school  was  most  attractive,  the  rela 
tion  between  the  teacher  and  the  student  seeming  to 
be  of  the  closest  and  most  friendly  sort.  There  is  an 
air  of  home  life  about  the  entire  establishment  that 
cannot  but  have  a  very  wholesome  influence  on  the  girls 
who  are  preparing  to  go  out  from  its  classes  as  wives 
and  mothers  or  as  members  of  society.  There  was  a 
public  meeting  at  night  held  in  the  school  auditorium 
which  was  attended  by  the  students  and  teachers  as 
well  as  by  a  considerable  number  of  teachers  from  the 
town.  There  are  in  Piracicaba  two  other  very  impor 
tant  institutions — the  Normal  School,  wifh  equipment 
equal  to  that  of  Teacher's  College  in  New  York,  and 
the  State  Agricultural  College,  one  of  the  best  I  have 
ever  seen  as  regards  equipment  and  beauty  of  grounds — 
and  there  was  a  good  attendance  from  the  faculty  of 
these  schools  as  well  as  from  the  townspeople. 


The  determined  purpose  of  the  women  to 
establish  work  in  Rio  de  Janeiro,  the  capital 
city  of  Brazil,  has  continued  to  hold  through 
out  a  whole  generation  amid  almost  unparal 
leled  failures  and  discouragements.  In  the 
report  of  1885  we  read: 

A  few  words  only  will  suffice  in  regard  to  the  Rio 
College.  It  must  now  be  generally  known  that  this 
college  is  only  a  projected  though  determined  institu 
tion.  The  plan  is  to  build  up  a  first-class  college  for 
the  girls  in  Rio  de  Janeiro,  the  capital  of  the  empire. 


The  college  must  be  planned  on  a  broad  and  liberal 
basis,  providing  a  full  literary  and  scientific  course 
and  giving  from  its  incipiency  due  prominence  to 
Christian  culture. 

Thirty-five  years  later  we  find  this  school 
still  a  "projected  though  determined"  insti 

The  following  story  shows  the  leading  of 
God  through  a  series  of  disappointments  and 
seeming  failures.  In  1884  the  one-hundredth 
anniversary  of  Methodism  was  celebrated  by 
gifts  for  the  extension  of  the  kingdom  into 
foreign  lands.  One  of  the  objects  selected 
by  the  committee,  appointed  by  the  General 
Conference,  was  a  college  to  be  located  in 
Rio  de  Janeiro  for  the  girls  of  high-class 
families.  At  the  urgency  of  the  committee, 
the  Woman's  Board  (at  the  time  only  five 
years  old)  ventured  to  ask  the  women  of  the 
Church  for  $50,000  for  this  purpose.  The 
General  Board  promised  hearty  support  and  co 
operation.  The  offering  proved  to  be  only 
$16,229.73,  and  it  was  soon  discovered  that 
the  "hearty  cooperation"  on  the  part  of  the 
General  Board  did  not  mean  financial  aid. 
The  women  were  discouraged  and  wished  to 
abandon  the  plan  and  appropriate  the  funds 
to  other  work.  When  Bishop  Granbery  vis- 


ited  the  field  in  1887,  however,  he  urged  the 
women  to  push  forward  in  spite  of  the  odds 
which  were  against  them.  In  accordance  with 
his  recommendation,  Miss  Mary  Bruce,  who 
had  been  a  teacher  in  Piracicaba,  was  appointed 
to  Rio  de  Janeiro.  Some  months  later  beau 
tiful  property  on  Larangeiras  (street  of  the 
orange  trees)  was  purchased.  Concerning  this 
property  it  was  said:  "The  altitude,  salubrious 
air,  and  distance  from  the  crowded  part  of 
the  city  make  it  almost  a  sanitarium  when 
yellow  fever  is  prevailing.  No  case  has  ever 
occurred  there." 

Miss  Bruce  encountered  difficulties  in  pro 
curing  a  license,  but  in  her  annual  report  she 
writes  in  high  hope: 

Though  the  children  did  not  swarm  in  at  the  opening 
of  the  school,  yet  we  are  not  discouraged.  We  have 
fourteen  pupils,  eleven  of  whom  are  boarders.  It  will 
require  patience  and  waiting  to  develop  the  work  here 
and  make  a  place  as  Miss  Watts  has  done  in  Piraci 
caba  ;  but  in  no  spirit  of  boasting  we  believe  our  time 
will  come  when  we  will  be  known  and  trusted  and  our 
efforts  crowned  with  success. 

Just  before  the  time  to  begin  the  second 
session,  there  came  upon  the  beautiful  city  a 
severe  scourge  of  yellow  fever.  Schools  were 
suspended  and  our  missionaries  were  stricken 
with  fever.  So  great  was  the  calamity  that 


the  General  Secretary  says:  "Of  our  mission 
aries  in  Rio  de  Janeiro  it  may  be  said  as  of 
the  Jews  of  old,  'they  were  scattered  and 
peeled.'  " 

After  this  a  brave  effort  was  made  to  con 
tinue  the  work,  but  pure  water  was  found  to 
be  insufficient  and  the  expense  of  drainage  so 
exorbitant  that  early  in  1893  the  school  at 
Rio  de  Janeiro  was  closed,  it  having  been 
demonstrated  that  the  frequent  yellow  fever 
scourages  made  it  impossible  to  establish  a  per 
manent  work.  It  was  the  purpose  of  the 
Board  to  continue  its  work  through  a  day 
school  and  special  work  among  the  women. 
Accordingly,  the  property  on  the  heights  was 
sold  and  reinvested  in  a  day  school  building 
for  Rio  de  Janeiro  and  in  the  establishment 
of  a  boarding  school  at  Petropolis. 

Miss  Lulu  Ross  opened  the  day  school 
under  the  handicaps  of  sickness  and  the  neces 
sity  of  seeking  new  quarters.  The  following 
year  Mrs.  H.  C.  Tucker,  formerly  Miss  Ella 
Granbery,  took  charge.  This  was  the  year 
of  revolution,  and  throughout  the  bombard 
ment  of  the  city  the  workers  stood  at  their 
post  despite  the  falling  of  shot  and  shell  in 
the  streets.  That  year  seventy-two  pupils 
were  enrolled. 


After  the  school  had  been  discontinued  for 
eight  months  it  was  again  opened  by  Miss 
Layona  Glenn  in  1896.  Miss  Glenn  planned 
for  a  system  of  day  schools,  and  for  a  number 
of  years  three  were  in  session:  the  Jardim 
School,  taught  in  the  Jardim  Church,  the  Cat- 
tete  in  connection  with  the  Cattete  Church, 
and  the  Collegio  Americano  Fluminense.  (It 
will  be  remembered  that  "collegio"  merely 
means  school.)  The  last  named  was  finally 
closed  in  1915,  because  suitable  rented  prop 
erty  could  not  be  secured. 

The  most  tragic  event  in  the  history  of  the 
woman's  missionary  work  in  Brazil  was  the 
failure  to  hold  the  vantage  ground  once  held 
in  the  capital  of  the  republic,  beautiful  Rio. 
At  the  closing  session  of  the  Woman's  Board 
of  Foreign  Missions,  held  in  1910,  a  pathetic 
appeal  came  from  the  entire  missionary  body 
in  Brazil,  pleading  for  a  suitable  building  in 
Rio  de  Janeiro  as  headquarters  for  work  in 
the  republic.  They  wrote:  "One  of  three 
things  is  inevitable:  the  school  must  die  a  lin 
gering  death,  it  must  be  closed  at  once,  or 
the  Board  must  put  it  in  position  to  compete 
favorably  with  the  other  schools  in  the  city." 

They  asked  for  a  committee  to  consider 
locations  and  prices  and  to  consult  agents  and 


architects  before  submitting  plans,  They 
pleaded  that  the  work  in  Rio  de  Janeiro  be 
considered  first. 

In  response  the  Board  voted: 

That  the  Executive  Committee  be  authorized  to  nego 
tiate  a  loan  of  $100,000  if,  in  their  judgment,  it  were 
considered  wise  to  purchase  the  property  in  Rio  de 
Janeiro  for  which  that  amount  has  been  appropriated 
contingently,  and  that  $25,000  of  this  amount  be  paid 
annually  to  the  bank  to  liquidate  the  indebtedness. 

A  month  later  the  Woman's  Board  of  For 
eign  Missions  was  merged  with  the  Board  of 
Missions.  At  the  first  session  of  the  Wom 
an's  Missionary  Council,  April,  1911,  the 
President,  Miss  Bennett,  said  in  her  message: 

The  Foreign  Department  of  this  Council,  by  its  ac 
tion  last  year,  is  committed  to  the  establishment  of  a 
girls'  boarding  school  in  the  city  of  Rio  de  Janeiro. 
Every  reasonable  effort  ought  to  be  put  forth  to  accom 
plish  this  work  within  the  next  twelve  months. 

At  that  time  it  was  voted  to  hold  a  jubilee 
in  cooperation  with  the  women  of  other  boards. 
The  object  of  the  offering  was  to  be  for  the  still 
"projected  and  determined"  boarding  school 
for  high-class  girls  in  Rio  de  Janeiro.  When 
the  result  of  the  gifts  proved  to  be  $25,962.08, 
it  seemed  that  the  vision  of  the  years  was  about 
to  be  realized. 


In  1913  Miss  Bennett  and  Miss  Gibson  vis 
ited  Brazil,  spending  four  months  in  Rio  de 
Janeiro  in  search  of  suitable  property.  Be 
cause  of  high  prices,  the  difficulty  of  securing 
a  suitable  place,  and  the  breaking  out  of  the 
great  World  War,  the  long  hope  of  the  years 
was  again  deferred.  However,  in  1919,  Bish 
op  Moore,  on  his  second  visit  to  Brazil,  suc 
ceeded  in  securing  a  site  upon  which  was  lo 
cated  a  beautiful  building  suited  to  the  begin 
nings  of  a  first-class  woman's  college,  the 
situation  of  the  property  being  such  as  to 
command  the  attention  of  the  entire  city. 
Hope  again  ran  high,  for  the  "projected  and 
determined"  college  for  high-class  girls  in 
Rio  de  Janeiro,  it  seemed,  was  about  to  be 
come  a  reality,  and  this  hope  was  changed  to 
"glad  fruition"  when  at  its  session  in  1920, 
the  Council  authorized  the  erection  of  the 
administration  building  for  the  Bennett  Col 
lege  at  Rio,  plans  and  specifications  to  be 
made  and  submitted  at  an  early  date. 

Juiz  DE  FORA. 
Collegia  Mineiro. 

The  difficulties  which  met  the  brave  mis 
sionaries  in  Rio  de  Janeiro  and  closed  for 
them  the  doors  of  opportunity  pushed  them 


out  into  other  fields.  In  1891  Miss  Mary 
Bruce  spoke  to  the  Woman's  Board  in  session 
concerning  the  two  strategic  centers  of  Pira- 
cicaba  and  Rio  de  Janeiro  and  urged  the  open 
ing  of  work  in  a  third,  Juiz  de  Fora.  This 
was  a  city  of  21,000  people,  which  had  al 
ready  a  church  and  a  well-established  school 
for  boys,  Granbery  College.  The  bishop  in 
charge  also  urged  the  opening  of  a  school  for 
girls,  and  the  result  was  that  in  1892  Miss 
Bruce  and  eleven  of  her  pupils  were  trans 
ferred  from  Rio  de  Janeiro  to  Juiz  de  Fora, 
and  Collegio  Mineiro  was  begun.  The  suc 
cess  of  the  school  from  the  beginning  was  al 
most  without  parallel  in  the  history  of  our 
boarding  schools.  Children  from  the  high- 
class  families  were  entered,  and  soon  the  poor 
ly  equipped  rented  houses  were  outgrown. 
Miss  Perkinson  writes  in  1897:  "Situated  as 
we  are  we  have  nothing  to  recommend  us  but 
earnest  and  faithful  work." 

Thirty-eight  pupils  were  enrolled  at  that 

In  1900  she  says:  "We  have  been  fortunate 
in  finding  a  much  more  convenient  and  com 
modious  house,  \vhich  costs  us  the  same  rent 
as  the  one  that  Bishop  Galloway  said  was 
next  to  the  worst  thing  he  had  ever  seen  in 


Southern  Methodism.     Life  in  general  seems 
broader  and  better  here." 

The  event  in  1904  that  will  always  stand 
out  prominently  in  the  history  of  the  school 
was  the  purchase  of  property.  The  house 
that  was  occupied  was  to  be  sold  at  public 
auction,  according  to  the  will  of  the  owner, 
who  left  it  to  his  widow  during  her  lifetime. 
Her  death  forced  the  sale.  The  missionaries 
longed  to  purchase  it,  prayed  to  God,  and 
wrote  to  the  Foreign  Secretary,  asking  permis 
sion  to  bid  on  it.  Four  days  before  the  sale 
the  cable  came:  "Bid  up  to  eight  thousand 
dollars."  They  bid  and  secured  the  house. 
The  grounds  were  valuable,  in  the  very  heart 
of  the  city,  and  the  house  was  large,  though 
old.  A  prominent  physician,  a  Catholic,  but 
a  liberal  man,  said:  "The  Lord's  hand  was  cer 
tainly  in  that  purchase,  for  a.  number  of  men 
were  anxious  to  buy  the  property,  and  yet 
they  did  not  go  to  the  sale."  The  missionaries 
and  their  friends  united  in  a  praise  service 
on  Thanksgiving  Dry. 

The  purchase  gratified  the  town,  and  many  civic  im 
provements  followed,  among  which  were  a  new  modern 
railroad  station,  an  electric  street  railway,  with  Ameri 
can  cars,  which  proved  a  boon  to  teachers  and  pupils 
as  well  as  to  the  public,  and  new  sidewalks  laid  around 
the  school. 


Many  alterations  were  made,  adding  to  the  comfort 
of  the  college  home.  A  large  open  gymnasium  was 
built  from  the  material  of  a  small  house  on  the  back 
lot.  Beside  this  building  was  the  basket  ball  ground. 
Another  new  feature  was  the  rose  garden,  where  the 
queen  of  flowers  revels  in  beauty  and  fragrance  twelve 
months  in  the  year.  The  house  was  repaired  and 
painted,  and  the  stately  dwelling,  all  their  own,  seemed 
like  a  palace  to  the  missionaries  who  had  been  pilgrims 
and  wanderers  so  long.  (''Story  of  the  Years,"  by  Miss 
M.  L.  Gibson.) 

The  school  prospered  for  a  number  of 
years  under  the  principalship  of  Miss  Ida 
Shaffer  and  later  under  Miss  Sara  Warne. 
In  1913  the  enrollment  had  reached  one  hun 
dred  and  thirteen.  Because  the  building  did 
not  meet  the  needs  of  the  school  and  because 
Granbery  College  was  receiving  girls,  it  was 
decided  in  1914  to  discontinue  Collegio  Mi- 
neiro.  The  property  was  sold  to  the  General 
Department  of  the  Board  of  Missions  for  the 
use  of  Granbery.  The  Council  received,  in 
exchange,  property  for  the  enlargement  of 
Collegio  Isabella  Hendrix  at  Bello  Horizonte 
and  also  a  sum  of  money  which  was  turned 
into  the  fund  for  the  projected  school  at  Rio 
de  Janeiro.  Collegio  Mineiro  was  closed,  yet 
its  years  of  efficient  service  and  the  consecrated 
lives  of  the  missionaries  have  enriched  Brazil 
in  manifold  ways. 


Collegia  Americano. 

For  a  number  of  years  the  question  of  the 
sale  of  property  in  Rio  de  Janeiro  and  the 
purchase  of  property  for  the  school  in  Petropo- 
lis  came  before  the  Woman's  Board  for  de 
cision.  The  report  of  1894-95  shows  that  the 
exchange  had  been  made.  Miss  Watts  writes 
of  the  opening  of  Collegio  Americano: 

A  large  house  with  almost  no  furniture  is  not  famed 
for  cheerfulness,  and  this  one  on  a  hill  far  from  any 
other  was  no  exception.  On  the  seventh  day  of  May 
we  opened  our  doors  to  the  public.  Three  children  ap 
peared,  and  we  went  to  work  with  them.  No  one  of  us 
was  busy  all  day,  but  we  all  had  something  to  do  for 
the  three.  As  each  one  constituted  a  distinct  class  and 
each  had  several  studies,  there  was  more  to  do  than  any 
but  a  teacher  would  think.  In  June  two  more  came, 
and  July  brought  others.  New  names  were  enrolled 
from  time  to  time  until  we  had  twenty-four  matricu 

The  yellow  fever  epidemic  in  Rio  de  Janeiro 
had  driven  the  court,  diplomatic  circles,  and 
all  others  who  were  financially  able  to  this 
health  resort  of  Petropolis,  which  was  only 
three  hours  distant.  This  made  the  transfer 
of  the  Rio  de  Janeiro  property  seem  wise. 
However,  the  situation  of  the  college  on  the 
hill  made  a  day  pupilage  impossible.  When 


later  the  court  was  removed,  the  numbers  de 
creased  and  the  attendance  became  small.  Be 
cause  the  school  did  not  seem  to  be  serving  the 
largest  needs  and  because  of  its  proximity  to 
the  capital  city,  the  teachers  and  pupils  were 
removed  in  1920  to  Rio  de  Janeiro.  This 
formed  the  nucleus  for  the  opening  of  that 
school,  and  thus  the  original  plan  was  served. 
Miss  Eliza  Perkinson,  who  for  years  was  the 
head  of  the  school  at  Petropolis,  was  appointed 
to  take  charge  of  this  new  college. 


Collegia  Methodista. 

For  a  number  of  years  appeafs  had  been 
made  to  the  Woman's  Board  to  open  work  in 
Ribeirao  Preto,  but  because  of  lack  of  funds 
a  continued  refusal  was  necessary.  Finally, 
however,  in  1899  Bishop  Hendrix  transferred 
Miss  Leonora  Smith  to  that  point  and  opened 
a  school,  making  the  condition  that  there 
should  be  no  cost  to  the  Woman's  Board. 
Miss  Smith  writes  of  those  early  days: 

I  arrived  in  Ribeirao  Preto  August  31  and  opened 
school  September  5  in  the  hall  now  known  as  the  Meth 
odist  church.  There  being  no  school  furniture,  the 
church  chairs  and  tables  were  kindly  tendered  me  for 
use  until  I  could  provide  better.  One  of  our  members 


made  at  reasonable  rates  five  double  desks,  a  black 
board,  and  a  hatrack.  Teaching  in  the  church  was 
fraught  with  many  inconveniences,  the  chief  one  being 
the  moving  of  school  furniture  three  times  a  week  to 
prepare  for  public  services  and  the  arrangements  for 
school  the  following  day.  As  soon  as  I  could  I  made 
a  change,  finding  a  house  not  in  every  particular  de 
sirable.  I  have  two  rooms,  each  about  seven  feet 
square,  which  I  use  for  bedroom  and  study,  and  a 
large  room  for  the  school.  For  these  and  my  board 
I  pay  fifteen  dollars. 

The  second  year  she  enrolled  seventy-six 
pupils,  and  everywhere  there  seemed  to  be  an 
open  door  of  opportunity.  The  success  of 
the  school  was  such  that  the  Board  seemed 
compelled  to  make  an  appropriation  for  its 

In  1903  there  came  to  the  city  of  Ribeirao 
Preto  a  terrible  yellow  fever  epidemic,  and 
Miss  Ida  May  Stewart  and  Miss  Willie  Bow 
man,  who  were  serving  there  at  that  time, 
gave  themselves  in  such  self-sacrificing  serv 
ice  to  the  sick  and  the  dying  that  for  years 
their  names  were  mentioned  in  the  most  lov 
ing  remembrance.  This  labor  of  love  enlarged 
their  influence  to  such  an  extent  that  the  fol 
lowing  year  we  find  them  moving  into  larger 
and  better  quarters.  This  brought  new  cour 
age,  and  the  purchase  of  a  fine  lot  a  little 
later  gave  a  new  prestige  to  the  school. 


It  was  not  until  1913  that  plans  for  build 
ing  were  really  projected.  There  were  at 
that  time  two  hundred  and  twelve  children 
crowded  into  an  old  building  which  was  wholly 
inadequate.  The  dedication  of  the  new  col 
lege  grounds  took  place  while  Miss  Bennett 
and  Miss  Gibson  were  in  Brazil.  Of  this 
occasion  Miss  Gibson  says: 

The  dedication  of  the  college  grounds  to  the  service 
of  God  and  ministry  to  children  took  place  on  Sunday 
night,  September  20,  1913.  After  the  night  service  the 
large  congregation  marched  in  procession  to  the  col 
lege  grounds,  and  there  under  the  stars  and  lighted  by 
a  large  incandescent  lamp  the  assemblage  stood  while 
selections  from  the  Ritual  were  read  in  English  by  Dr. 
Tilly  and  in  Portuguese  by  Senor  Reis.  Hymns  were 
sung  in  the  two  languages,  and  short  talks  were  made 
by  friends  of  the  school,  after  which  the  erection  of 
the  building  was  authorized  in  the  name  of  the  Wom 
an's  Missionary  Council,  and  Miss  Bennett  and  Miss 
Gibson  each  planted  a  tree  in  commemoration  of  the 
event  which  would  prove  of  such  moment  in  the  history 
of  the  Church  and  community. 

The  final  completion  of  the  building  meant 
for  the  Collegio  Methodista  a  greatly  enlarged 
field  of  usefulness,  and  Miss  Jennie  Stradlcy, 
the  directress,  continued  to  hold  for  it  the 
center  of  influence  in  that  city  of  twenty  thou 
sand  inhabitants,  located  in  the  heart  of  a 
great  Brazilian  coffee  region. 


Collegia  Isabella  Hendrix. 

Bishop  Wilson  visited  Brazil  in  1903  and, 
upon  his  return,  advised  the  sale  of  the  prop 
erty  at  Petropolis  and  recommended  the  open 
ing  of  work  in  Bello  Horizonte.  That  same 
year  the  Board  voted  to  occupy  that  impor 
tant  city.  Miss  Watts,  who  had  pioneered  the 
work  in  Piracicaba  and  Petropolis,  was  ap 
pointed  to  open  the  school.  This  appointment 
was  made  with  the  intention  of  erecting  a 
building  in  the  near  future  which  should  bear 
the  name  Isabella  Hendrix,  in  honor  of  Bish 
op  Hendrix's  mother,  whose  deep  interest  in 
the  work  and  workers  had  been  untiring.  A 
beautiful  lot,  comprising  four  acres  near  the 
center  of  the  town,  had  been  given  to  the  Gen 
eral  Board  of  Missions,  half  of  which  was 
turned  over  to  the  Woman's  Board  of  For 
eign  Missions,  and,  in  1905,  the  immediate 
erection  of  the  Isabella  Hendrix  was  recom 

Entrance  into  this  city  was  made  against 
the  strongest  Catholic  opposition,  but  the 
courageous  heart  of  our  pioneer  never  failed. 
She  writes  in  1905: 


A  little  more  than  a  year  ago  we  opened  school  with 
five  pupils,  but  during  the  session  of  nine  months  that 
followed  we  matriculated  sixty-three.  It  really  is  a 
wonder  that  we  have  a  Catholic  child  in  the  school,  for 
the  priests  preach  against  us  on  Sunday  and  work 
against  us  on  the  week  days.  One  priest  told  his  con 
gregation  that  Dona  Isabella  snatched  the  saint  off  the 
neck  of  one  of  the  children.  We  hear  of  people  who 
want  to  send  their  children  to  us,  but  are  afraid. 

The  school  continued  to  prosper,  and  in  1914 
the  enrollment  had  reached  one  hundred  and 
ninety-one.  Not  only  did  Catholic  opposition 
put  the  school  to  the  test,  but  the  educational 
reforms  going  on  in  Brazil  made  a  higher 
standard  necessary.  Miss  Watts  says  concern 
ing  this:  "We'll  stand  the  storm  as  we  have 
done  in  Piracicaba,  Juiz  de  Fora,  and  Petropo- 
lis;  for  our  schools  are  God's  schools.  We 
must  have  his  lighthouses  wherever  we  can 
put  them,  and  he  will  keep  the  light  burning." 

Miss  Blanche  Howell  and  Miss  Mamie  Fin- 
ley,  each  in  succession,  followed  Miss  Watts 
as  Directress.  Later,  Miss  Emma  Christine 
was  put  in  charge.  The  following  from  her 
gives  an  insight  into  the  success  of  the  school: 
"The  playgrounds  are  now  a  delight  to  pupils 
and  teachers.  A  little  girl,  a  pupil,  was  heard 
to  say  as  she  passed  our  gate:  'O  but  this 


school  is  good !    It  is  very  good.    It  has  play 
grounds,  a  swing,  and  a  seesaw !' ' 

Work  in  the  classroom  would  seem  to  be 
equally  pleasant,  for  she  further  writes:  "My 
fifth-year  class  in  the  life  of  St.  Paul  was  es 
pecially  interesting  to  me,  as  in  it  were  many 
girls  who  had  never  before  studied  the  Bible. 
One  day  one  of  these  girls  said:  'Paul  was  so 
enthusiastic  for  Christ.  Why  are  not  our  men 
of  to-day  interested  in  religion?'  And  I 
thought,  'Why  not,  indeed?'" 

Collegia  Americano. 

\Vhen  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church 
and  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  South, 
agreed  to  work  territorially  in  South  America, 
and  Brazil  was  given  over  to  Southern  Meth 
odism,  this  meant  the  entrance  into  the  State 
of  Rio  Grande  do  Sul  and  the  carrying  on 
of  the  work  that  had  already  been  begun  in 
the  capital  of  Porto  Alegre.  The  Woman's 
Board,  in  its  session  in  1900,  voted  to  follow 
the  General  Board  into  South  Brazil  and  to 
accept  the  responsibility  of  the  woman's  work 
in  Porto  Alegre,  which  had  already  been  pro 
jected  by  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church. 
Porto  Alegre  is  four  days'  journey  from  Rio 


de  Janeiro,  and  Miss  Mary  Pescud,  the  first 
appointee,  writes  two  years  later  concerning 
this  new  and  untried  field:  "A  year  ago  I  was 
a  stranger  in  a  strange  land,  a  land  almost 
as  different  from  the  Brazil  I  knew  as  that 
is  from  the  homeland.  Eight  or  ten  differ 
ent  nationalities  are  represented  in  our  circle 
of  friends,  but  we  all  found  a  common  tongue 
in  the  Portuguese  language."  Concerning  her 
school  equipment,  she  says:  ''Its  quarters  are 
as  poorly  adapted  for  a  school  as  can  well 
be  imagined, "and  its  furnishings  would  pro 
voke  criticism  in  a  backwoods  school  in  the 
States,  though  we  are  in  the  capital  and  lar 
gest  town  of  one  of  the  largest  States  of 

The  school  was  opened  with  an  enrollment 
of  fifty,  and  in  1918  the  number  had  increased 
to  one  hundred  and  ten.  In  1909  two  flour 
ishing  day  schools  were  in  session.  Miss 
Elizabeth  Lamb  followed  Miss  Mary  Pescud 
as  the  head  of  Collegio  Americano  and  was 
succeeded  by  Miss  Eunice  Andrew. 

Constantly  the  missionaries  wrote  of  their 
success  in  spite  of  poor  equipment  and  an  illy 
adapted  rented  building,  inadequate  to  meet 
the  great  possibilities  in  this  rich  city.  The 
Centenary  ingathering  of  funds  brought  new 


courage,  for  the  askings  included  $100,000  for 
a  new  building  at  Porto  Alegre. 


While  the  outwork  has  never  been  as  strong 
in  Brazil  as  in  China,  yet  much  has  been  done 
that  is  worthy  of  note.  Miss  Amelia  Elerding, 
who  was  appointed  to  Brazil  in  1892,  devoted 
her  efforts  almost  entirely  to  evangelistic 
work — first  in  Rio  de  Janeiro  and  for  many 
years  to  Italian  work  in  Sao  Paulo. 

In  Rio  de  Janeiro  Miss  Elerding  was  assisted  for 
a  time  by  Miss  Wright,  an  English  lady.  A  little  or 
gan  brought  by  Miss  Watts  from  the  United  States 
was  a  great  help  in  drawing  the  people  together.  Miss 
Amelia  Elerding  began  an  industrial  school  with  nine 
pupils.  With  the  help  of  Mrs.  Tilly,  she  organized  a 
woman's  prayer  meeting.  One  afternoon  in  each  week 
the  missionaries  were  "at  home"  to  the  estalayem  peo 
ple,  giving  them  an  opportunity  to  see  how  they  lived 
and  how  they  enjoyed  social  life.  Later  Miss  Elerding 
organized  a  Ladies  Aid  Society  to  develop  Christian 
activity.  Miss  Bowman  also  worked  most  effectively 
in  Rio  de  Janeiro,  interesting  the  English-speaking 
ladies  in  visitation  work  and  securing  from  them  cloth 
ing  for  children  of  the  families  on  her  visiting  list. 
She  visited  the  Sailors'  Mission,  going  on  board  ships 
with  the  sailors'  missionary  to  assist  in  Sunday  serv 

The  great  Central  Mission,  conducted  by  the  Rev.  H. 
C.  Tucker  in  a  desperately  needy  section  of  Rio  de 
Janeiro,  has  for  years  had  the  services  of  women  mis 
sionaries  supported  by  the  woman's  work.  The  fol- 


lowing  missionaries  have  served  this  Church :  Miss  May 
Dye,  Miss  Eunice  Andrew,  Miss  Trulie  Richmond, 
Miss  Blanche  Howell,  Miss  Virginia  Howell. 

In  1898  Miss  Elerding  was  transferred  from  Rio  de 
Janeiro  to  Sao  Paulo  after  her  furlough,  during  which 
time  she  tried  to  gain  new  ideas  and  new  methods  re 
lating  to  woman's  work.  There  were  ninety  thousand 
Italians  in  Sao  Paulo,  and  from  the  first  Miss  Elerding 
felt  a  strong  interest  in  them.  While  she  has  done 
some  work  among  the  Portuguese,  yet  her  main  effort 
has  been  directed  to  the  Italians.  The  work  among 
Brazilians  would  have  been  more  permanent  and  en 
couraging  if  there  had  been  conservation  of  effort 
through  a  strong  central  Church  that  would  have  com 
manded  the  respect  and  won  the  confidence  of  the 
people  of  Sao  Paulo.  With  three  Bible  women  and 
one  evangelistic  helper,  Miss  Elerding  has  lived  among 
the  people,  visiting  their  homes,  loving  them,  and  serv 
ing  them  for  Christ's  sake.  She  has  held  people's 
prayer  meetings  before  services  on  Sunday  evenings 
and  on  Friday  evenings  and  has  attended  services  at 
the  carpenters'  shops  with  good  results. 

In  Porto  Alegre  the  Institutional  Church  has  been 
supplied  with  a  pastor's  assistant,  and  for  a  number 
of  years  a  day  school  was  conducted  in  that  church  by 
the  Woman's  Board. 

In  Piracicaba  a  Woman's  Aid  Society  was  organ 
ized  years  ago  to  build  up  the  spiritual,  social,  and  finan 
cial  interests  of  the  Church.  During  one  year  four 
hundred  dollars  was  raised  and  many  women  led  out 
into  Church  work.  In  1897  the  president  of  the  so 
ciety  urged  the  members  to  take  up  Bible  women  in 
China  as  their  special  work. 

Flower  missions  and  services  in  jails  and  hospitals 
have  been  carried  on  in  various  places. — "Story  of  the 
Years,"  M.  L.  Gibson. 



The  1911  report  of  the  Woman's  Mission 
ary  Society  of  Brazil  showed  that  at  that 
time  there  had  been  organized  twenty-two 
auxiliaries  with  a  membership  of  six  hundred 
and  seventy-three.  The  aim  adopted  by  this 
society  was  to  establish  parochial  schools  in  a 
number  of  small  towns  in  connection  with  the 
pastorates  and  to  be  responsible  for  their  sup 
port.  Their  plan  also  included  contributions 
to  foreign  missions.  In  1919  they  sent  their 
first  check  to  the  Council  Treasurer  for  work 
in  Africa. 



THE  beginnings  of  all  worth-while  enter 
prises  are  fraught  with  intense  interest.  This 
is  particularly  true  with  reference  to  the  be 
ginnings  of  the  woman's  work  in  each  of  the 
fields  occupied,  and  Mexico  is  not  an  excep 
tion.  It  has,  indeed,  a  distinctive  interest  of 
its  own  in  the  fact  that  it  was  begun  not  on 
Mexican,  but  on  American  soil,  and  in  a  pri 
vate  home.  The  first  annual  report  of  the 
Woman's  Missionary  Society  shows  that  an 
appropriation  of  five  hundred  dollars  was 
made  to  a  school  on  the  Mexican  border,  con 
ducted  in  the  home  of  Mrs.  Jacob  Norwood 
at  Laredo,  Tex.  This  amount  went  to  the 
support  of  four  girls,  two  of  whom  boarded 
in  Mrs.  Norwood's  home,  the  other  two  being 
day  pupils.  This  small  beginning  was  made 
in  answer  to  the  plea  of  the  Rev.  A.  H.  Suth 
erland,  the  founder  of  Southern  Methodism 
on  the  Mexican  border.  With  wonderful 
foresight  he  writes:  "We  hold  a  very  advan- 


tageous  position.  We  are  able  to  carry  on 
foreign  mission  work  under  our  own  flag. 
My  plan  is  to  prosecute  this  border  work  until 
we  reach  the  Pacific,  thus  having  one  long  line 
of  gospel  breastworks  and  an  army  of  gospel 
workers  from  the  Gulf  of  Mexico  to  the  Pa 
cific  Ocean." 

The  second  annual  report  shows  that  an 
appropriation  of  an  additional  five  hundred 
dollars  was  made  for  pupils  to  be  boarded  and 
educated  in  the  home  of  Mrs.  Sutherland  in 
San  Antonio. 

This  was,  indeed,  a  small  beginning,  but 
there  was  in  the  minds  of  the  women  the  seed- 
thought  of  a  great  school  soon  to  be  estab 
lished  in  Laredo.  Under  date  of  April  17, 
1 88 1,  Mrs.  Norwood  says:  "You  will  no  doubt 
be  surprised  to  learn  of  our  removal  from 
Laredo  to  this  place  (Conception).  The  two 
girls  (boarders)  will  remain  with  me,  I  sup 
pose,  until  the  opening  of  the  proposed  col 
lege  in  Laredo.  I  sincerely  hope  the  college 
will  be  built,  that  many  Mexican  girls  may  be 
educated  there.  Laredo  is  a  promising  and 
an  interesting  place,  and  it  was  with  many 
regrets  that  we  left." 


Laredo  Seminary. 

In  September  of  that  same  year  two  regu 
larly  appointed  missionaries,  Miss  Annie  Wil 
liams  and  Miss  Rebecca  Toland,  were  sent  to 
the  Mexican  border.  Already  four  thousand 
dollars  had  been  appropriated  for  the  build 
ing  of  Laredo  Seminary,  and  a  plot  of  ground 
had  been  donated  by  the  Rev.  Elias  Robert 
son.  The  General  Secretary  writes  in  the  re 
port  of  1882: 

The  unavoidable  delay  in  the  erection  of  the  build 
ing  has  not  materially  affected  the  work  of  our  young 
ladies  this  year.  Miss  Williams  is  located  for  the 
present  at  the  Mexican  town  Conception,  heart  and 
soul  given  to  her  work,  and  Miss  Toland  not  less  suc 
cessfully  engaged  in  teaching  a  fine  school  at  Laredo. 

Miss  Annie  Williams  says  of  her  work  in 
these  days:  "My  home  for  two  months  after 
coming  to  the  border  was  with  Mr.  Norwood's 
family,  but  they  were  called  away  from  Con 
ception,  and  I  went  to  live  with  a  Mexican 
family,  where  I  have  remained  up  to  this  time. 
I  have  been  the  recipient  of  many  kindnesses 
from  the  Mexicans  of  this  place  and  realize 
what  a  noble  people  they  will  become  when  the 
light  of  the  gospel  truth  illuminates  their 
hearts  and  minds.  I  ask  that  an  appropriation 


be  made  to  complete  and  furnish  the  seminary 
at  Laredo." 

The  building  was  completed  October  13, 
1882,  at  which  time  Miss  Williams  took 
charge.  She  says:  "We  spent  some  time  in 
furnishing  the  building  and  trying  to  make 
ready  for  the  fall  session,  which  opened  the 
second  Monday  in  November.  We  had  only 
three  Mexican  and  four  American  children  at 
the  beginning,  but  in  a  short  time  the  school 
increased  to  eighteen."  That  same  year  Miss 
Toland  had  sixty  pupils  in  her  self-supporting 
day  school  at  Laredo. 

At  the  end  of  the  first  year  Miss  Williams 
was  married  to  the  Rev.  J.  F.  Corbin,  and  Miss 
Toland  was  given  supervision  of  the  sem 
inary  until  the  arrival  of  Miss  Nannie  Hold 
ing  in  October  of  1883.  Since  that  time  the 
Laredo  Seminary  has  been  inseparably  asso 
ciated  with  Miss  Holding's  name.  Her  whole 
life  and  soul  became  incarnate  in  the  institu 
tion  ;  and  the  daughters  of  the  school,  some  of 
whom  were  in  attendance  for  years,  were  in 
deed  her  daughters.  She  remained  at  the 
head  of  Laredo  Seminary  for  nearly  thirty 
years.  When  she  became  principal  the  build 
ing  would  accommodate  by  the  utmost  over 
crowding  only  thirty  children.  During  her 


cidministration  it  was  enlarged  to  a  capacity 
of  between  three  and  four  hundred.  In  her 
book,  "A  Decade  in  Mission  Life,"  she  says: 

February  of  1885  found  us  domiciled  in  our  com 
fortable  and  sorely  needed  new  quarters.  The  crowd 
ing  in  the  old  house  made  the  new  one  seem  so  roomy 
that  sometimes  a  little  faithless  wonder  would  come : 
Would  it  ever  be  possible  for  its  halls  to  be  filled  with 
children?  We  were  soon  rebuked  for  our  faithless 
ness,  for  in  one  short  year  our  numbers  caused  the 
prayer  to  go  forth  which  brought  us  Faith  Hall. 

The  following  incident  shows  the  origin  of 

the  name  "Faith  Hall."    Miss  Holding  says: 
It  was  late  in  the  fall  of  1886.    As  I  write,  how  that 

November  evening  comes  back  to  me  laden  with  the 
perfume  of  holy  memories.  I  see  again  the  dear  friends 
and  the  precious  children  gathered  one  by  one  in  the 
little  chapel  after  a  day  of  fasting;  I  feel  again  the 
hush  of  the  Master's  presence;  I  hear  the  voice  of  sup 
plication  as  we  told  of  our  need,  of  how  crowded  we 
were,  of  how  our  hearts  were  grieved  to  turn  away 
those  who  wanted  to  enter  our  home ;  I  hear  again  the 
expression  of  the  simple  faith  of  the  children.  Faith 
Hall  now  stands  as  a  monument  to  that  evening's 
prayer.  With  strong  confidence,  one  of  the  little  ones, 
looking  up  with  pure,  innocent  eyes  said :  "Shall  we 
begin  to-morrow?"  I  answered  "No;  but  we  will  pre 
pare  the  ground."  So  the  morning  found  us  taking 
measurements  and  removing  trees. 

At  the  meeting  of  the  Woman's  Board  in 
1887  Miss  Holding  made  a  plea  to  the  Com 
mittee  on  Extension  of  Work  for  the  money 


to  erect  Faith  Hall.  The  answer  was:  "We 
fear  we  cannot  give  you  what  you  ask."  On 
the  anniversary  night  of  that  same  session  she 
made  a  public  address  on  Mexico.  As  she 
closed,  Mrs.  Lizzie  Swiggart  stepped  forward 
taking  from  the  table  an  empty  box  which  had 
contained  flowers.  In  eloquent  words  she 
thrilled  the  audience  until  they  pressed  for 
ward  pouring  their  gifts  into  the  box.  This 
was  the  beginning  of  making  Faith  Hall  a 
reality.  Donations  came  afterwards  from 
nearly  every  Southern  State. 

After  the  Woman's  Foreign  Mission  and 
Home  Mission  Boards  were  united  Laredo 
Seminary  was  turned  over  to  the  home  de 
partment.  Miss  Holding  was  succeeded  by 
Dr.  J.  M.  Skinner.  The  name  was  changed 
to  Holding  Institute  in  honor  of  the  one  whose 
hope  and  faith  had  been  a  leaven,  not  only 
for  the  work  on  the  border,  but  throughout 
all  of  Mexico. 

Colegio  Ingles. 

Miss  Holding  was  not  only  head  of  Laredo 
Seminary,  but  was  agent  for  missionary  work 
along  both  sides  of  the  border.  In  1888  the 
Woman's  Board  began  work  in  Saltillo,  a 


city  of  about  twenty  thousand  inhabitants.  A 
few  years  previous  a  day  school,  opened  by 
Mrs.  Corbin,  had  been  taken  in  charge  by  Miss 
Leila  Roberts,  who  was  being  supported  by 
the  "Rosebuds"  of  Virginia.  As  the  school 
grew  it  became  the  incarnation  of  the  life  of 
Miss  Roberts  almost  to  the  same  degree  that 
Laredo  Seminary  had  become  the  expression 
of  Miss  Holding's  mind  and  heart.  The  cir 
cumstances  under  which  she  was  heroically 
laboring  when  the  Woman's  Board  entered 
Saltillo  marked  her  as  a  true  pioneer.  The 
three-hundred-year-old  building  in  which  the 
school  was  being  conducted  was  adobe  with 
the  exception  of  the  stone  facings  of  the  win 
dows  and  doors.  There  was  no  glass  in  the 
windows,  and  the  heavy  wooden  shutters 
"shut  out  all  light  where  most  needed,  or  let 
in  all  of  the  cold  where  least  wanted," 

At  the  close  of  Miss  Roberts's  first  year  of 
work  for  the  Woman's  Board,  Miss  Holding 
reports : 

Miss  Roberts  has  worked  faithfully  to  make  the 
Colegio  Ingles  what  it  is.  I  am  more  and  more 
pleased  with  the  school  at  every  visit.  In  the  short 
space  of  one  year  we  can  almost  call  it  self-supporting. 

That  same  year  an  appropriation  was  made 
to  buy  property.  Miss  Holding  and  Miss  Rob- 


erts  searched  in  vain  to  find  a  suitable  place, 
and  finally  resorted  to  the  three-century-old 
property  then  occupied.  A  letter  written  four 
years  later  by  the  Rev.  H.  C.  Morrison,  Sen 
ior  Secretary  of  the  General  Board,  describes 
the  transformation  of  the  building: 

At  Saltillo  we  met  Miss  Roberts,  a  woman  of  mar 
velous  power  for  work  and  doing  good.  To  her  is  due 
the  undying  honor  of  the  work  in  that  city.  Alone  and 
unaided  she  battled  for  a  time,  and  then  under  the 
fostering  hand  of  the  Woman's  Board  she  has  wrought 
wonders — a  school  property,  commodious  and  well  ar 
ranged,  with  the  touch  of  taste  on  every  hand.  In  ad 
dition  to  this  property  and  fronting  on  another  street 
is  the  new  church.  The  lot  on  which  it  is  located  was 
purchased  by  Miss  Roberts  with  the  proceeds  from 
the  school,  and  the  building  was  erected  through  her 
energy  and  the  financial  aid  of  Brother  Grimes,  of  our 
work.  This  plant  is  a  gospel  arc  light  in  the  heart  of 

Miss  Roberts,  in  her  report  of  this  same 
year  (1893),  reveals  the  proportions  which  the 
work  had  begun  to  take.  She  says: 

A  normal  department,  with  a  course  of  study  to  be 
completed  in  three  years,  was  added  to  our  work.  As 
teaching  is  really  the  only  avenue  open  to  the  women 
by  which  they  can  earn  enough  to  be  above  want,  we 
saw  that  our  opportunity  had  come  to  prove  to  the 
people  that  we  were  ready,  as  far  as  possible,  to  meet 
this  deeply  felt  need. 


By  tenacity  of  purpose  and  personal  effort 
she  succeeded  in  the  establishment  of  this  de 
partment.  In  time  all  the  other  mission 
schools  of  the  woman's  work  became  feeders 
to  the  normal  school  at  Saltillo,  each  sending 
yearly,  when  possible,  its  most  promising  pu 
pils  for  teacher-training.  Miss  Roberts,  in  her 
report  of  1894,  further  says: 

Seventy-five  poor  children  were  taught  in  our  free 
schools,  and  there  is  one  place  where  all,  the  high  and 
the  low,  the  rich  and  the  poor,  meet  together  every 
day,  and  that  is  in  our  chapel  services  where  God  is 
worshiped  and  his  Word  is  studied.  The  work  wherein 
my  soul  delights  is  that  with  the  poor  women.  They 
come  to  us  as  their  M.D.  and  their  D.D.  The  number 
of  those  enrolled  in  our  Bible  and  sewing  class  is 
sixty-seven.  They  meet  me  once  a  week  on  the  shady 
side  of  the  wall  in  one  of  our  courts,  as  there  is  no 
other  place. 

The  record  of  1896  shows  that  there  was 
at  that  time  an  enrollment  of  one  hundred 
and  ninety-one  and  that  the  income  was  pay 
ing  two-fifths  of  the  school  expenses.  Such 
prestige  had  been  established  that  the  Govern 
or  of  the  State  had  recommended  it  to  par 
ents  who  were  asking  for  the  best  places  to 
educate  their  girls.  This  favor  with  the  of 
ficials  continued,  for  later,  through  the  in 
fluence  of  Governor  Carranza,  a  subsidy  of 


one  hundred  dollars  (Mexican)  a  month  was 
received  from  the  State.  The  Saltillo  Normal 
was  the  only  Protestant  school  invited  to  have 
representation  in  the  Congress  of  Teachers  in 

The  school  at  Saltillo  was  also  the  only 
one  of  our  schools  that  was  not  closed  at  some 
time  during  the  revolution.  Miss  Roberts  made 
frequent  visits  into  Mexico  and  was  thus  able 
to  keep  the  work  from  being  discontinued. 
The  report  of  1919  shows  an  enrollment  of 
two  hundred  and  three,  the  student  body  rep 
resenting  six  States  in  Mexico  and  the  Mexi 
can  population  in  the  United  States.  Govern 
or  Mariles,  a  former  pupil  of  the  school,  wrote 
in  this  year:  "I  desire  to  restore  to  your  school 
the  monthly  subsidy  of  one  hundred  dollars 
(Mexican)  granted  by  President  Carranza 
when  he  was  governor." 

Miss  Roberts  writes  at  that  time:  "Gov 
ernor  Mariles  was  anxious  to  have  us  lay  the 
corner  stone  of  the  new  school  building  last 
September.  He  guarantees  us  every  neces 
sary  protection  as  well  as  his  personal  sup 

In  view  of  these  facts,  the  Council  voted  in 
1919  to  erect  a  new  building  at  the  very  earli 
est  date  possible,  a  fine  piece  of  land  facing 



the  Alameda  and  diagonally  across  from  the 
State  Normal  having  recently  been  purchased 
with  that  in  view.  This  action  was  confirmed  by 
the  session  of  1920  in  the  passage  of  the  reso 
lution  to  erect  for  the  Normal  School  at  Sal- 
tillo  an  administration  building  to  cost  $150,- 
ooo,  to  be  provided  from  a  previous  appropria 
tion  of  $20,000  and  from  Centenary  funds. 
The  great  esteem  in  which  the  school  was  held 
was  shown  by  the  fact  that  its  friends  and  ex- 
students  also  subscribed  most  generously  to 
this  building  fund.  The  recent  awakening 
that  came  to  Mexico  as  a  result  of  the  Cen 
tenary  created  a  great  demand  for  more  in 
tensive  training  of  evangelistic  workers.  To 
meet  this  demand  it  was  decided  to  open  in 
the  fall  of  1920  a  department  of  Bible  in  con 
nection  with  the  Normal,  the  old  normal  build 
ing  to  be  used  for  settlement  work,  thereby 
providing  a  center  for  the  further  training  of 
evangelistic  workers. 

The  MacDonell  Institute. 

A  school  at  Durango  was  opened  by  Miss 
Kate  McFarren  during  the  ministry  of  Rob 
ert  MacDonell  (the  husband  of  Mrs.  R.  W. 
MacDonell,  former  Executive  Secretary  of 


the  Home  Department).  After  his  death  the 
desire  became  strong  among  the  women  of  the 
Board  of  Foreign  Missions  to  help  extend 
the  life  and  influence  of  this  one  who  had 
given  himself  in  heroic  sacrifice.  According 
ly,  property  was  purchased  in  1889  and  the 
school,  which  was  taken  over  from  the  Parent 
Board,  was  called  the  MacDonell  Institute. 
Miss  McFarren  was  in  charge  until  1898,  at 
which  time  she  was  appointed  to  evangelistic 
work  and  Miss  Ellie  B.  Tidings  was  made 
Principal.  The  MacDonell  Institute,  from  its 
beginning  "met  and  suffered  much."  There 
was  in  the  early  days  a  lack  of  railroad  facili 
ties,  so  that  this  mountainous  region  was  al 
most  inaccessible  to  the  outside  world.  The 
fanaticism  of  the  people  was  so  intense  that 
many  of  the  experiences  of  the  workers  could 
well  be  termed  persecution.  The  property 
seems  constantly  to  have  been  in  danger,  and 
even  as  late  as  1903  Miss  Tidings  writes: 

One  day  they  (meaning  the  neighbors,  who  by  law 
had  a  right  to  do  so)  sent  workmen  to  wall  up  our 
windows,  and  when  I  asked  the  chief  workman  what 
was  their  motive,  he  shrugged  his  shoulders  and  said : 
"Just  to  injure  the  school."  Last  year  the  Jefe  Politico 
sent  policemen  to  protect  us  on  the  night  of  September 
16  (Independence  Day)  ;  but,  notwithstanding  their 
presence,  quite  a  number  of  our  windows  were  broken, 


so  this  year  he  sent  word  beforehand  that  he  would 
be  personally  responsible  for  our  property.  The  mob 
came  as  usual,  and  we  heard  them  screeching  for 
hours.  They  could  see  that  the  Jefe  Politico  was  keep 
ing  watch.  We  heard  afterwards  that  they  threatened 
to  kill  him  for  not  permitting  them  to  "celebrate  their 

In  spite  of  persecution,  the  school  was  suc 
ceeding;  for  the  Corresponding  Secretary  of 
the  Woman's  Board  says  in  one  of  her  re 

The  city  of  Durango,  while  priest-ridden  and  fanati 
cal,  is  not  openly  so  hostile  as  formerly.  The  gracious 
influences  emanating  from  MacDonell  Institute  are 
being  felt  very  sensibly;  and  while  superstitution  and 
mariolatry  abound,  the  opra  Bible  is  no  longer  an  un 
known  book. 

The  damage  that  the  neighbors  had  done 
by  putting  one  side  of  the  school  building  in 
darkness  led  to  its  sale  and  the  purchase  of  a 
large  piece  of  property  with  a  number  of  dif 
ferent  buildings.  An  interesting  thing  about 
this  new  property  was  that  between  the  build 
ings  there  was  a  cock  pit.  Miss  Esther  Case, 
Executive  Secretary  for  Latin  America,  on 
her  visit  to  Mexico  in  1919  writes: 

It  has  two  stories  (meaning  the  cock  pit),  and  at 
one  side  there  is  a  long  room  that  could  be  used  as  an 
assembly  hall.  If  this  cock  pit  could  be  covered  with 
glass,  it  would  serve  as  a  gymnasium  and  also  for  a 
hall  for  closing  exercises. 


Miss  May  Tread  well  was  in  charge  of  Mac- 
Donell  Institute  in  1910,  and  in  1911  Mrs. 
Nellie  O'Bierne  was  appointed  principal. 
Mrs.  O'Bierne  says  in  the  report  of  1911-12: 

Though  we  have  had  wars  and  rumors  of  wars  all 
the  year,  our  work  has  steadily  grown.  In  September 
when  we  opened  we  had  sixty  pupils,  we  have  now 
passed  the  two-hundred  mark. 

In  this  high  tide  of  success  the  school  was 
closed,  and  in  the  report  of  the  Foreign  De 
partment  Secretary  for  the  following  year  we 

MacDonell  Institute  was  suspended  last  spring 
because  of  political  disturbances  in  and  around  Du- 

However,  the  fall  of  1912  found  the  mis 
sionaries  at  work.  All  went  well  for  a  \vhile, 
but  toward  the  close  of  the  year  conditions 
became  more  serious,  farms  all  around  the 
city  were  burned  and  provisions  destroyed. 
For  a  while  all  communication  with  the  out 
side  world  was  cut  off,  and  affairs  grew  so 
much  worse  that  the  vice  consul  decided  that 
the  missionaries  should  leave. 

With  the  territorial  division  of  Mexico, 
which  was  made  according  to  denominational 
agreement,  Durango  remained  in  the  hands  of 
Southern  Methodism,  and  the  Council  voted 


in  1919  to  reopen  the  school  there  as  soon  as 
workers  were  available. 

Colcgio  Palmore. 

Dr.  W.  B.  Palmore,  who  visited  Mexico  in 
1889,  became  so  interested  in  that  needy  field 
that  at  the  meeting  of  the  Woman's  Board  in 
May,  1890,  he  made  the  following  offer: 

I  hereby  promise  to  donate  to  the  Woman's  Board 
of  Foreign  Missions  for  a  girls'  school  in  Chihuahua 
all  of  a  plot  of  land  purchased  for  me  by  Rev.  S.  G. 
Kilgore  and  lying  on  the  south  side  of  and  adjoining 
the  property  of  the  Parent  Board,  the  property  to  be 
used  for  a  site  for  a  girls'  school  to  be  owned  and 
operated  by  the  Woman's  Board  of  Foreign  Missions 
of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  South. 

The  gift  was  accepted,  and  the  school 
opened  the  following  year  with  Miss  Augusta 
Wilson  as  principal.  In  1892  a  building  was 
erected  and  the  school  named  Colegio  Palmore. 
The  foundations  were  well  laid  by  the  first 
principal  during  her  three  years  of  service,  and 
the  institution  had  a  phenomenal  growth  from 
the  beginning. 

Miss  Elizabeth  Wilson,  who  was  appointed 
to  Laredo  Seminary  in  1889  as  matron  of  that 
school,  became  the  successor  to  Miss  Augusta 

AN  Sly  BRING  A  NEIGHBOR'S  NEED.     149 

Wilson.  From  that  time  on,  until  her  death 
in  1916,  the  work  of  Palmore  College  centered 
about  that  remarkable  personality.  She  was 
assisted  during  all  of  these  years  by  her  close 
friend  and  coworker,  Miss  Lucy  Harper.  In 
Miss  Wilson's  third  report  she  says :  "Our 
work  embraces  four  departments :  a  pay  school 
for  girls  and  one  for  boys  writh  some  outside 
pupils  for  English  only.  These,  with  the 
woman's  work,  missionary  society,  two  Sun 
day  schools,  a  prayer  meeting,  some  visiting, 
and  the  help  in  the  Church  services,  keep  us 
fully  engaged." 

The  enrollment  in  1910  had  reached  five 
hundred  and  eighty-seven,  and  the  church, 
located  on  the  compound  and  having  a  mem- 
•bership  made  up  principally  of  the  former  pu 
pils  of  the  school,  had  become  one  of  the 
strongest  in  Mexico. 

In  1902  a  commercial  department  was 
opened  under  the  direction  of  Prof.  Servando 
I.  Esquivel,  a  former  pupil  of  Miss  Wilson. 
Professor  Esquivel,  in  speaking  of  Miss  Wil 
son,  her  school,  and  its  work,  says: 

Miss  Wilson's  contribution  to  Mexico  is  the  educa 
tion  of  more  than  three  thousand  boys  and  girls. 
Could  there  have  been  a  greater  one?  To  accomplish 
it  she  toiled  in  the  early  hours  of  the  morning  and 
worked  far  into  the  night.  She  did  not  spare  herself. 


Her  mission,  the  one  she  loved  most,  was  the  bringing 
of  souls  to  Christ.  And  so  if  any  one  visiting  Pal- 
more  College  in  its  best  days  had  asked  to  see  its 
highest  expression,  I  should  have  led  him  to  Holding 
Hall  at  chapel  time,  where  the  principal  brought  forth 
the  treasures  of  the  Scriptures  to  deposit  them  in  the 
spirit  of  the  students ;  or  to  the  office  at  the  evening 
twilight  hour,  where  she  gathered  the  girls  around  her 
for  prayer  r.nd  sacred  songs ;  or  to  the  parlor  on  Sun 
day  morning,  where  she  taught  the  women  of  her  Sun 
day  school  class.  These  were  the  crowning  moments 
of  her  life,  the  high-water  marks  of  the  life  of  the 
school.  Not  all  of  the  students  came  into  personal  con 
tact  with  her,  but  not  one  ever  left  without  having 
felt  the  touch  of  her  influence.  She  did  not  allow  any 
public  function  of  the  institution  to  be  opened  without 
recognition  of  her  God.  More  than  one  Governor  of 
the  State  of  Chihuahua  bowed  for  the  first  time  in 
prayer  with  Protestants  at  the  closing  exercises  of 
Palmore  College,  because  Miss  Wilson  would  place 
God  first.  She  was  a  spiritual  leader. 

Herein  lies  the  secret  of  the  marvelous  pow 
er  wielded  by  Palmore  College  for  more  than 
twenty  years. 

In  1914,  when  Miss  Wilson  and  Miss  Har 
per  were  telegraphed  instructions  to  leave 
Mexico,  the  reply  was:  "No  trouble.  No 
fears.  Fine  school.  Firm  friends.  Please 
let  us  stay." 

The  Secretary  of  the  Foreign  Department 
says  in  her  report  of  that  year: 


Misses  Wilson  and  Harper  remained  in  Chihuahua, 
the  storm  center  of  warfare,  until  General  Villa  and 
six  trains  o^  soldiers  entered  the  city.  Then  the 
American  consul  ordered  them  to  leave.  They  left, 
taking  with  them  their  faculty  and  a  number  of  pupils. 
They  stopped  at  El  Paso,  and  within  two  weeks  had 
rented  a  house  in  the  midst  of  the  Mexicans  and 
opened  a  school  composed  principally  of  children  of 
their  former  patrons  who  had  refugeed  to  El  Paso. 
In  two  months  the  school  increased  to  one  hundred  and 

The  Council  did  not,  however,  deem  its 
continuance  advisable  because  a  number  of 
Mexican  schools  were  already  being  conducted 
in  El  Paso.  The  strain  of  the  turbulent 
times  proved  too  much  for  the  frail  body  of 
Miss  Wilson,  and  on  Sunday  morning,  Au 
gust  29,  1916,  she  passed  to  the  life  beyond. 

In  1914,  at  a  conference  of  denominational 
representatives,  held  in  Cincinnati,  plans  were 
proposed  for  a  territorial  adjustment  of  Mexi 
co.  At  a  later  meeting  in  Mexico  City,  the 
adjustments  made  allotted  to  our  Church  the 
border  States  of  Sonora  and  Tamaulipas  be 
sides  the  interior  State  of  Durango,  thus  giv 
ing  to  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  South, 
an  unbroken  territory  extending  across  the 
border  of  Mexico  from  the  Gulf  of  Mexico 
on  the  east  to  the  Gulf  of  California  on  the 
west.  In  1919  this  plan  was  put  into  effect. 


The  school  at  Saltillo  had  never  really  closed, 
so  the  first  one  to  be  reopened  by  the  Council 
was  that  of  Colegio  Palmore.  In  the  reor 
ganization  of  the  school  the  boys'  boarding 
department  was  opened  in  a  building  received 
through  exchange  with  the  American  Board. 
The  Rev.  J.  P.  Lancaster  was  appointed  Prin 
cipal  and  Miss  Mary  E.  Massey  Associate 
Principal.  Two  years  later  Miss  Massey  be 
came  the  head  of  the  institution. 

In  1919,  in  one  of  the  buildings  on  the 
school  compound,  the  Council  opened  its  first 
Christian  social  center  in  Mexico  with  Miss 
Lillie  Fox  as  Head  Resident.  It  was  decided 
that  the  name  Centro  Christiano  should  be 
given  to  this  settlement  and  all  others  that 
might  in  the  future  be  opened  in  Mexico. 


Colegio  Ingles. 

In  1882  Miss  Blanche  Gilbert  was  sent  to 
Mexico  City  to  pioneer  work  in  Central  Mex 
ico.  It  was  later  decided  to  begin  in  San  Luis 
Potosi,  but  from  the  annual  report  of  1885 
we  learn  that  work  at  that  point  was  carried 
on  for  only  one  year.  Miss  Gilbert  and  Miss 
Mattie  Jones,  her  assistant,  were  transferred 


to  other  fields  and  the  property  which  had 
been  purchased  was  sold. 

In  1890  Miss  Holding  was  sent  to  this  city 
with  a  view  to  reopening  work.  At  that  time 
she  purchased  an  attractive  piece  of  property 
which  had  formerly  been  a  part  of  an  old  Fran 
ciscan  convent.  Miss  Toland,  the  first  prin 
cipal  of  the  new  school,  writes:  "When  I  ar 
rived  at  San  Luis  Potosi  last  July  I  found 
Miss  Holding  here  with  everything  in  readi 
ness  to  welcome  me.  Already  she  had  the 
patio  adorned  with  beautiful  pot  plants  and 
everything  looking  bright  and  cheerful." 

Miss  Toland  was  Principal  until  1902,  when 
she  was  succeeded  by  Miss  Esther  Case,  who 
was,  in  turn,  followed  by  Miss  Laura  V. 
Wright.  In  1902  Miss  Frances  Moling  be 
came  the  head  of  the  school  and  continued 
in  this  position  until  its  close.  In  1892  Miss 
Holding  writes  concerning  the  work  at  San 
Luis  Potosi:  "This  school  is  almost  without 
parallel  in  its  growth  and  prosperity.  In  the 
two  years  of  its  existence  it  has  outgrown  its 
boundaries  and  called  for  more  room,  more 
money,  and  more  helpers." 

To  meet  this  demand  an  addition  was  made 
to  the  building  and  a  boarding  department  add 
ed  to  the  day  school.  A  charity  school  was 


also  conducted  in  another  part  of  the  city 
under  Miss  Viola  Blackburn's  supervision. 
In  1914  the  institution  was  obliged  to  be 
closed  on  account  of  the  revolution.  Miss 
Moling  writes  concerning  this  tragic  event: 

On  April  21,  1914,  when  the  Americans  entered  Vera 
Cruz,  we  quickly  sent  the  children  away  for  the  night 
and  went  ourselves,  not  realizing  that  we  would  never 
return.  The  children  were  in  the  study  hall  when  the 
message  came  that  mobs  were  forming  in  the  streets, 
that  the  American  consulate  had  been  attacked,  the 
flags  torn  down  and  trampled  underfoot,  and  the  con 
sul  himself  saved  only  by  the  timely  intervention  of  a 
servant  who  wrapped  the  Mexican  flag  about  him  and 
spirited  him  away.  We  knew  then  that  it  was  time  for 
us  to  go,  as  the  college,  too,  had  been  threatened.  Mexi 
can  friends  came  to  our  rescue,  friends  who  were  true 
when  the  test  came,  and  all  of  our  girls  were  given 
homes  for  the  night.  A  lady  who  had  been  formerly 
a  student  at  Colegio  Ingles  offered  us  the  protection 
of  her  home,  which  we,  of  course,  gladly  accepted. 
We  expected  to  return  the  following  day,  but  were 
bitterly  disappointed,  the  streets  still  being  filled  with 
infuriated  mobs.  The  time  for  closing  the  scholastic 
year  was  at  hand.  The  deep  solicitude  of  our  friends 
in  the  homeland,  the  frequent  messages  from  our  Sec 
retary,  which  had  preceded  the  occupation  of  Vera 
Cruz,  all  combined  to  help  us  to  decide  to  leave  Mexico 
until  it  would  be  safe  to  occupy  our  building  again. 
Accordingly  the  last  of  May,  on  a  special  train  made  up 
of  refugees,  we  left  the  work  that  meant  more  to  us 
than  anythiag  else  in  the  world. 


With  the  exchange  of  properties  incident 
to  the  allotment  of  territory,  the  Christian 
Woman's  Board  of  Missions  received  the 
property  at  San  Luis  Potosi,  while  theirs  at 
Monterey  fell  to  the  Woman's  Missionary 
Council.  At  this  latter  place  a  girls'  school 
was  opened  in  the  fall  of  1919  with  Miss  Dora 
Ingram  in  charge. 


Institute  Colon. 

In  1893  Miss  Augusta  Wilson  and  Miss 
Mattie  Dorsey  were  transferred  from  Chi 
huahua  to  Guadalajara  for  the  purpose  of 
opening  a  new  school.  Miss  Wilson  remained 
at  the  head  of  this  institution  for  five  years 
and  was  then  succeeded  by  Miss  Esther  Case. 

After  two  years,  Miss  Case  was  followed  by 
Miss  Alice  B.  Griffith.  Mrs.  A.  E.  McClen- 
don,  Mrs.  Ellen  B.  Carney,  Miss  Norwood  E. 
Wynn,  and  Miss  Mary  Massey,  each  in  turn, 
served  as  Principal.  Because  of  the  fanati 
cism  of  this  city,  our  missionaries  were  never 
able  to  attract  a  pupilage  from  the  upper  class 
es  and  the  school  suffered  from  the  frequent 
changes  of  policy  resulting  from  the  changes 
in  principalship.  However,  numbers  of  the 
children  of  the  native  pastors  were  among 



the  graduates,  many  of  whom  have  given  valu 
able  service  in  our  mission  schools  and  in  ac 
tive  Church  work.  During  the  time  that  Mrs. 
McClendon  was  Principal  the  school  was  given 
the  name  Institute  Colon  (Columbus).  While 
Miss  Wynn  was  the  head  of  the  school  a  prop 
erty  was  purchased  which  was  formerly  a 
sanitarium  conducted  as  a  branch  of  the  Bat 
tle  Creek  Sanitarium  of  this  country.  This 
was  the  best  piece  of  property  that  the  Wom 
an's  Board  owned  in  Mexico. 

A  day  school  was  conducted  in  a  building 
adjoining  the  church  property  in  San  Juan  de 
Dios,  the  slum  section  of  Guadalajara.  This 
school  was  called  the  Trueheart  Day  School 
in  honor  of  Mrs.  S.  C.  Trueheart,  the  Corre 
sponding  Secretary  of  the  Woman's  Board  of 
Foreign  Missions. 

In  the  exchange  of  properties  the  school  at 
Guadalajara  went  to  the  Congregationalists. 

Mary  Keener  Institute. 

Mary  Keener  Institute,  in  Mexico  City,  was 
opened  in  1897  under  the  principalship  of 
Miss  Hardynia  Norville.  A  day  school  had 
previously  been  conducted  in  the  basement  of 
the  mission  church  which  had  been  supported 


by  the  women  of  Carondelet  Street  Church, 
New  Orleans.  Their  interest  in  the  work  had 
been  aroused  by  Bishop  Keener,  and  when  the 
Woman's  Board  took  over  the  school  it  was 
given  the  name  Keener  Institute.  At  the  re 
quest  of  Bishop  Keener,  this  name  was 
changed  to  Mary  Keener,  in  honor  of  the 
bishop's  wife,  who  he  said  had  been  the  prime 
mover  in  the  enterprise.  Mary  Keener  Insti 
tute  was  opened  in  a  rented  building  and  was 
throughout  the  years  of  its  existence  without 
any  permanent  quarters.  Property  was  so  dif 
ficult  to  secure  that  the  missionaries  worked 
under  the  severest  handicap.  Mrs.  Cobb,  Ex 
ecutive  Secretary,  says  in  her  report  of  1911- 

There  are  no  words  too  strong  to  portray  the  real 
positive  need  for  a  change  of  location.  The  house  for 
which  we  pay  nearly  $4,500  (Mexican)  rent  each  year 
is  dark,  gloomy,  poorly  ventilated,  poorly  lighted,  and, 
worse  still,  has  sewerage  that  is  a  menace  to  the  in 
mates.  There  are  no  windows  in  the  bedrooms  and  no 
ventilation  except  through  open  doors. 

In  spite  of  these  conditions  the  school  pros 
pered  under  the  able  management  of  Miss 
Esther  Case.  Mrs.  Cobb  goes  on  to  say  in  this 
same  report: 

Brave  Miss  Case !  Who  else  would  have  endured 
such  conditions?  All  honor  to  the  woman  who,  despite 


such  environment,  can  sustain  the  largest  school  for 
girls  in  Mexico  City!  If  she  had  failed,  if  there  were 
not  still  almost  constant  applications  from  the  best 
families  in  the  city,  including  that  of  Madero  himself, 
we  might  consider  closing  the  school. 

As  a  result  of  Mrs,  Cobb's  visit  to  Mexico 
and  her  presentation  of  the  conditions  under 
which  the  school  was  being  conducted,  a  much 
more  desirable  place  was  leased  for  three 
years  and  the  last  year  of  the  school  was  con 
ducted  under  more  favorable  circumstances. 

An  interesting  feature  connected  with  the 
Mary  Keener  Institute  was  the  Chinese  Sun 
day  school,  in  which  American  and  Mexican 
teachers  and  pupils  from  the  advanced  grades 
of  the  school  taught  Chinese  pupils  on  Sunday 
afternoon.  Many  of  these  pupils  were  con 
verted  and  became  active  members  of  Mesias 
Church,  the  largest  Methodist  Episcopal 
Church,  South,  in  Mexico  City. 

The  Institute  was  closed  in  1914.  Miss 
Case  says  in  her  report: 

Our  work  was  rudely  interrupted  when  the  bom 
bardment  began  on  February  9  and  lasted  for  ten  days. 
During  that  time  we  sent  as  many  of  our  boarding 
girls  as  we  could  to  their  homes.  Our  church  and 
mission  house  were  in  the  danger  zone.  Though  more 
than  two  thousand  people  were  killed  in  the"  city,  thou 
sands  wounded,  and  bullets  and  parts  of  exploded 
shell  thrown  into  our  school  yard  and  on  our  roof,  we 


were  mercifully  spared  and  kept  from  harm.  Our 
boarding  and  day  pupils  returned  promptly  after  the 
bombardment  and  we  carried  on  the  work  until  the 
end  of  the  school  year  in  May.  On  August  28  a  cable 
gram  was  received  telling  all  the  missionaries  to  leave 
at  once.  We  sent  our  boarding  pupils  home,  closed 
school,  and  had  announcements  printed  and  mailed  to 
our  patrons  and  friends  telling  them  why  we  were 
leaving.  We  came  away  very  reluctantly,  hoping  we 
might  return  after  the  election  in  October.  When  that 
was  a  failure,  \ve  planned  to  return  by  the  first  of  the 
year ;  but  the  revolution  continues,  and  we  can  only 
pray  that  peace  may  come  and  the  way  be  opened  for 
us  to  resume  our  work. 

After  the  territorial  division  among  the  de 
nominations,  the  responsibility  for  Mexico 
City  fell  into  other  hands,  and  the  former 
Principal  of  Mary  Keener  Institute  was  en 
gaged  in  the  tasks  which  fall  to  the  Execu 
tive  Secretary  of  the  Council  for  Latin  Amer 
ica  and  Africa. 


Colegio  Progreso. 

In  the  exchange  of  properties  the  Council 
received  a  day  school,  Colegio  Progreso,  lo 
cated  at  Parral,  a  mining  town  of  about  15,- 
ooo  inhabitants  in  the  State  of  Chihuahua. 
This  school,  formerly  owned  by  the  American 
Board,  was  conducted  for  thirty-five  years  by 
Miss  Prescott,  who  was  obliged  to  leave  on 


account  of  the  revolution.  The  Mexican  teach 
ers  were  taken  over  by  the  Woman's  Mission 
ary  Council  and  the  school  was  carried  on 
without  interruption.  In  1918  four  teachers 
were  employed  and  two  hundred  and  twelve 
pupils  enrolled. 


The  work  of  the  Centenary  was  so  success 
fully  carried  on  in  Mexico  that  important  fi 
nancial  help  was  given  by  the  people  them 
selves  in  the  upbuilding  of  the  mission  insti 
tutions.  At  that  time  Miss  Norwood  Wynn 
was  appointed  as  Student  Secretary  for  Mex 
ico.  More  than  one  hundred  and  thirty  young 
people  volunteered.  These  she  organized  into 
volunteer  bands  and  assisted  in  making  plans 
for  their  life  work.  Miss  Wynn  also  organized 
Woman's  Missionary  Society  auxiliaries 
among  the  women ;  and  Miss  Case,  in  her  vis 
it  to  Mexico  in  1919,  formed  a  Conference 
society  with  nine  auxiliaries. 



UPON  the  close  of  the  Spanish-American 
War,  the  General  Board  of  Missions  took  im 
mediate  steps  to  enter  Cuba.  The  Senior  Sec 
retary,  Dr.  Walter  Lambuth,  decided  that 
Santiago  was  the  best  place  in  which  to  open 
the  gospel  campaign.  Accordingly,  a  house 
was  rented  and  the  Woman's  Board  was  al 
lowed  the  use  of  one  room.  Miss  G.  Hattie 
Carson  was  at  once  transferred  from  Mexico 
for  the  purpose  of  enterprising  a  girls'  school. 
This  school  was  named  in  honor  of  Dr.  Irene 
Toland,  a  sister  of  Miss  Rebecca  Toland,  who 
was  at  that  time  a  missionary  in  San  Luis 
Potosi,  Mexico.  Dr  Toland  was  a  graduate 
of  the  American  Medical  College  at  St.  Louis, 
Mo.  A  few  days  after  her  graduation  she 
opened  an  office  in  that  city  and  rapidly  built 
up  a  large  practice.  When  yellow  fever  was 
raging  among  our  soldiers  at  Santiago,  she 
offered  her  services  to  the  government  as 
nurse  and  worked  in  that  capacity  when  she 
ii  (161) 


might  have  gone  as  physician.  Day  after  day, 
medicine  case  in  hand,  she  fought  to  save  the 
soldiers  from  the  dread  pestilence,  and  then, 
at  last,  worn  beyond  endurance,  she  fell  a  vic 
tim  to  typhoid  fever  and  ere  long  laid  do\vn 
her  life  as  a  sacrifice  for  the  American  sol 
diers.  To  commemorate  this  service  of  love, 
the  school  at  Santiago  was  named  Irene  To- 

Because  of  the  inaccessibility  of  Santiago 
and  the  continued  scourge  of  yellow  fever,  the 
Irene  Toland  School  was  moved,  after  a  year 
and  a  half,  to  Matanzas,  "the  city  of  the  two 
rivers,"  and  Miss  Lily  Whitman  was  made 
Principal.  In  1902,  however,  Miss  Rebecca 
Toland  was  transferred  from  Mexico,  and  in 
1920  the  school  was  still  under  her  supervision. 
For  twelve  years  the  Irene  Toland  School 
was  housed  in  rented  property,  but  at  the  end 
of  that  time  a  beautiful  situation  was  secured 
on  a  hillside  overlooking  the  city  and  the  bay 

Miss  Esther  Case,  Executive  Secretary  for 
Latin  America,  says  in  a  report  of  1919: 

The  enrollment  of  day  pupils  in  the  Irene  Toland 
is  comparatively  small  because  it  is  located  rather  far 
from  the  center  of  the  city.  The  majority  of  these 
are  carried  to  and  from  school  in  the  auto  bus,  which 


is  owned  by  the  institution.  During  the  nineteen  years 
of  the  school's  existence  it  has  drawn  patronage  from 
more  than  fifty  towns  and  from  every  province  of  the 
island.  The  Cuban  teachers  in  the  grades  are  former 
pupils  of  the  school,  and  others  of  its  graduates  and 
former  pupils  are  teaching,  some  in  mission  and  others 
in  public  schools.  It  is  incorporated  with  the  institute 
of  Matanzas  Province  and  the  necessary  equipment  is 
being  installed  for  the  third  and  fourth  years  of  high 


In  the  same  year  that  the  Woman's  Board 
voted  to  move  the  Irene  Toland  School  to 
Matanzas  the  following  resolution  was  passed: 

We  recommend  that  Miss  Nannie  E.  Holding  be  re 
quested  to  go  to  Havana  and  organize  the  work  there 
as  soon  as  the  heat  of  the  summer  will  admit  and  that 
the  North  and  East  Texas  Conference  Societies  be 
granted  the  privilege  of  naming  the  school  Eliza  Bow 
man,  in  honor  of  one  whose  holy  life  was  a  benediction 
to  all  with  whom  she  came  in  contact. 

Mrs.  Eliza  Bowman  was  a  woman  greatly 
honored  among  Texas  women  for  her  godly 
life  and  character  and  her  zeal  for  missions. 
Her  son,  Richard  Bowman,  gave  one  thousand 
dollars  toward  founding  the  school. 

The  twenty-third  annual  report  showed  that 
the  school  had  been  opened  at  Havana  and 
was  in  charge  of  Miss  Hattie  Carson.  It  re 
mained  in  this  city  for  seven  years  and  car- 


ried  on  during  that  time  some  of  its  most  suc 
cessful  work.  Because  there  was  no  Church 
in  its  vicinity,  thereby  making  it  impossible  to 
conserve  the  efforts  of  the  missionaries,  it  was 
decided,  at  the  suggestion  of  Bishop  Candler, 
to  move  to  Cienfuegos. 

At  that  time  the  South  Georgia  Conference 
Society  united  with  the  North  Texas  in  buy 
ing  a  fine  piece  of  property  in  the  central  part 
of  the  city.  Miss  Carson  writes: 

The  school  is  situated  on  the  corner  of  two  of  the 
best  streets,  just  a  block  from  our  pretty  new  church. 
It  is  such  a  joy  to  be  in  our  own  home  without  fear 
of  having  to  move  at  the  whim  of  the  owner.  There 
are  twenty-one  rooms  in  the  house  besides  three  bath 
rooms,  and  there  are  fifteen  stationary  washstands 
throughout  the  building.  The  Eliza  Bowman  has  been 
incorporated  with  the  public  schools  and  renders  her 
monthly  report  to  the  city  authorities,  thus  being  under 
the  city's  protection.  Besides  Spanish,  we  teach  the 
usual  English  branches  and  are  prepared  to  give  a  good 
high  school  course.  We  also  teach  instrumental  and 
vocal  music,  typewriting,  sewing,  and  embroidery. 
Most  of  our  boarders  do  all  of  their  own  sewing,  even 
a  child  of  ten  years  making  dresses  for  her  little  sister. 

Miss  Carson  remained  at  the  head  of  the 
Eliza  Bowman  School  until  1914,  when  Miss 
Frances  B.  Moling,  who  came  out  of  Mexico 
on  account  of  the  revolution,  was  made  Prin 
cipal.  So  crowded  did  the  school  become  that 


there  was  always  a  long  list  of  applicants  for 
the  boarding  department. 

In  1919  a  piece  of  land  was  bought  in  Juan- 
ita,  an  addition  of  Cienfuegos,  and  plans 
were  made  for  the  erection  of  a  new  building 
to  meet  the  demand.  This  location,  it  was 
known,  would  cut  off  the  possibility  of  a  day 
patronage,  consequently  it  was  voted  to  retain 
the  old  property  for  the  day  school  and  a  so 
cial  center,  thus  enlarging  the  scope  of  the 


Miss  Case  says  after  a  visit  to  Cuba  in 

Havana  is  the  great  center  of  population,  as  it  is 
the  center  of  commerce  and  everything  that  is  worth 
while  in  Cuba.  One-seventh  of  the  population  of  the 
island  is  gathered  there,  and  one-fourth  of  its  in 
habitants  live  there  and  within  a  radius  of  twenty-five 
miles.  If  the  Woman's  Missionary  Council  could  es 
tablish  a  girls'  school  near  Candler  College,  in  Havana, 
our  Church  would  then  be  in  a  position  to  provide  op 
portunity  for  Christian  education  for  both  boys  and 
girls.  The  parents  who  send  their  boys  to  Candler 
College  from  towns  in  all  parts  of  Cuba  are  pleading 
for  a  school  in  Havana  for  girls. 

The  Centenary  askings  included  a  sufficient 
amount  for  the  projection  of  this  school,  and 
in  1919  a  beautiful  property  was  purchased 
just  across  the  street  from  Candler  College. 


This  included  a  city  block  of  land  and  a  hand 
some  stone  residence  large  enough  to  make  a 
beginning.  Miss  M.  Belle  Markey  was  ap 
pointed  Principal.  The  Council  could  not  get 
possession  until  January,  1920,  so  the  opening 
of  the  school  was  deferred. 


AT  the  meeting  of  the  Woman's.  Board  of 
Foreign  Missions  in  1910,  after  much  prayer 
and  earnest  consideration,  there  was  a  unani 
mous  decision  to  send  a  memorial  to  the  Gen 
eral  Board  requesting  the  opening  of  work 
in  Africa.  The  General  Board  was  then  in 
session  in  Nashville,  and  the  following  me 
morial  was  presented: 

Recognizing  the  obligation  of  the  women  of  South 
ern  Methodism  to  do  their  part  in  the  evangelization 
of  the  whole  world  and  to  reach  in  the  shortest  possi 
ble  time  the  dying  forty  millions  apportioned  to  our 
Church  by  the  great  Laymen's  Movement,  we,  the 
Woman's  Board  of  Foreign  Missions,  memorialize  the 
General  Board  of  Missions  to  hear  the  call  from  the 
Dark  Continent  of  Africa  and,  when  it  is  possible, 
open  work  in  that  needy  field. 

The  question  of  work  in  Africa  had  been 
before  the  General  Board  of  Missions  in  1906, 
and  now  through  this  memorial  from  the 
Woman's  Board  and  other  pressure  brought 
to  bear  the  question  was  again  revived  at  this 
meeting  of  1910.  Because  of  lack  of  funds 



the  plan  met  with  much  opposition,  but  it  was 
finally  decided  that  a  secretary  should  be  au 
thorized  to  visit  the  field  and  that  a  "spe 
cial"  should  be  raised  to  enterprise  the  mis 

The  following  year  found  Bishop  Lambuth, 
accompanied  by  Professor  J.  W.  Gilbert,  a 
prominent  leader  in  the  colored  Methodist 
Church  and  a  graduate  of  Paine  College,  in  the 
heart  of  the  Congo,  seeking  a  place  of  occu 
pation.  A  great  portion  of  the  territory  which 
had  been  allotted  to  the  Southern  Presbyterian 
Church  in  the  Belgian  Congo  had  never  been 
occupied,  and  the  Mission  Board  of  that 
Church  had  continued  to  urge  that  the  South 
ern  Methodist  Church  should  help  to  redeem 
the  heart  of  Africa.  The  consequence  was 
that  the  Presbyterian  Mission  gave  to  our  am 
bassadors  the  heartiest  cooperation,  and  with 
the  help  and  guidance  of  volunteers  from 
among  their  converts  our  two  great  Christian 
explorers  arrived  at  the  village  of  Wembo- 
Niama,  the  chief  of  the  Batetela  tribe,  Febru 
ary,  1912.  Here  the  assurance  came  that  this 
was  the  divinely  selected  spot. 

At  the  second  meeting  of  the  Woman's  Mis 
sionary  Council  in  Washington,  D.  C,  strong 
appeals  for  Africa  were  made  by  Miss  Ben- 


nett  and  other  leaders  of  the  Church.  In  the 
midst  of  the  discussion  that  followed,  a  note 
from  Mrs.  L.  H.  Glide,  of  San  Francisco, 
was  sent  to  the  desk.  It  contained  a  pledge  of 
five  thousand  dollars  for  the  work  in  Africa 
if  the  women  should  enter.  The  gift  was  an 
nounced,  whereupon  the  whole  congregation 
spontaneously  arose  and  broke  forth  into  sing-- 
ing  the  doxology.  The  following  resolution 
was  then  passed: 

Resolved,  That  the  Woman's  Missionary  Council,  in 
annual  session  at  Washington,  D.  C.,  in  1912,  send  a 
communication  to  the  Board  of  Missions  in  its  annual 
session,  assuring  it  that  if  it  is  decided  to  open  work  in 
Africa  the  women  will  cooperate. 

The  Board,  in  session  the  following  May,  ap 
propriated  a  minimum  of  fifteen  thousand  dol 
lars,  which  included  the  five  thousand  of  the 
women,  should  they  at  that  time  enter  the  field. 

The  first  missionaries  of  the  Board  of  Mis 
sions,  General  Work,  reached  Wembo-Niama 
in  February,  1914.  The  Woman's  Council 
had  as  volunteers  Miss  Kate  Hackney  and 
Miss  Etha  Mills.  They  were  detained,  how 
ever,  and  did  not  sail  with  the  first  mission 
aries.  Miss  Hackney  was  later  sent  to  China 
and  Miss  Etta  Lee  Woolsey  and  Miss  Kathron 
Wilson  volunteered  for  service  in  Africa. 


They  were  accepted,  but  detained  because  of 
war  conditions  until  1917,  when  they,  togeth 
er  with  Miss  Mills,  embarked  upon  their  long 
and  perilous  journey,  reaching  their  destina 
tion  January  25,  1918. 

Miss  Mills  was  appointed  to  serve  in  Lube- 
fu,  the  new  outstation.  She  not  only  served 
as  the  teacher  of  the  village,  but  was  com 
pelled,  because  of  lack  of  workers,  to  super 
vise  the  medical  work  in  the  dispensary.  In 
her  report  of  1918  she  says: 

Of  course  the  medical  work  here,  of  necessity,  has 
been  confined  to  simple  treatments,  but  this  does  not 
keep  the  more  serious  cases  from  coming.  Many  who 
are  incurable  come  also.  The  task  of  extracting  teeth 
is  not  a  very  pleasant  one,  especially  as  some  of  them 
are  very  hard  to  get  out,  being  deeply  rooted  and  firmly 
set  in.  I  have  not  failed  to  get  one  yet,  even  though 
it  took  three  separate  pulls  with  all  my  strength. 

Miss  Woolsey  and  Miss  Wilson  remained 
at  Wembo-Niama,  the  former  being  in  charge 
of  the  girls'  home  and  school.  In  her  report 
of  1919  she  says: 

We  are  glad  to  report  that  the  new  home  built  by 
the  Council  for  its  workers  was  finished  during  the 
quarter,  and  we  moved  in  on  July  25,  just  one  year  and 
a  half  to  the  day  after  our  arrival  at  the  mission.  The 
house  is  comfortable,  convenient,  and  pretty,  even 
though  the  framework  is  made  of  trees  from  the  forest 


tied  together  with  vines,  the  walls  of  mud,  and  the  roof 
of  grass.  Our  floors  are  hand-sawed  boards,  as  are 
also  the  window  and  door  frames  and  the  doors.  Four 
of  our  windows  are  glass  and  the  others  are  closed 
merely  by  shutters.  The  woodwork  in  the  living  and 
dining  rooms  is  painted  white,  and  against  the  soft 
dove  gray  of  the  mud  wall,  it  is  very  pretty.  Take  our 
handsome  library  table  in  the  center,  several  pretty 
rockers  (all  made  by  the  industrial  department),  a  few 
good  pictures  in  frames  on  the  wall,  our  white-dotted 
swiss  curtains,  several  rugs,  and  we  have  a  living  room 
into  which  we  would  be  proud  to  invite  even  Miss 
Bennett  and  Bishop  Lambuth. 

The  little  band  of  workers  served  these  first 
years  under  the  handicap  of  a  small  force  and 
poor  equipment  and  were  obliged  to  work  their 
way  slowly  through  the  terrible  ignorance,  su 
perstition,  and  degradation  of  the  African 
women.  At  the  close  of  her  second  year  Miss 
Woolsey  writes: 

We  have  enrolled  eight  little  girls  during  the  last 
quarter,  but  we  have  only  seven  at  present.  One  of  the 
mission  boys  brought  his  little  sister,  but  her  husband 
objected  to  her  being  away,  so  that  the  father  was  com 
pelled  to  come  and  get  the  child.  Then  the  boy  brought 
his  little  wife  in  the  place  of  his  sister.  She  stayed  two 
months,  when  the  father  said  he  wanted  her  for  a 
slave;  tj  l.j  "killed  the  marriage,"  as  they  say,  in  order 
to  be  abb  to  take  the  child  from  the  mission.  I  did 
my  best  to  keep  her,  for  she  was  so  unwilling  to  leave, 
but  the  old  man  would  not  listen ;  so  Nkoi  took  off  her 
apron  and  went  off  wearing  only  the  little  square  of 
scraps  that  she  had  pieced  together  in  her  sewing  les- 


sons,  the  beginning  of  the  little  skirt  of  which  she  was 
so  proud.  She  left  crying,  and  called  to  us :  "I  am 
coming  back."  Poor  child !  It  is  dreadful  to  see  the 
way  these  little  girls  are  sold  in  their  infancy.  Do 
pray  for  us  as  we  try  to  train  these  children. 

Before  she  had  been  on  the  field  more  than 
a  few  months  Miss  Wilson,  the  trained  nurse, 
was  obliged  to  take  the  place  of  Dr.  Mumpow- 
er,  whose  furlough  was  overdue.  When  he 
left,  the  entire  mission  was  without  a  physi 
cian,  and  Miss  Wilson  was  compelled  to  give 
medical  aid,  frequently  performing  some  of 
the  most  difficult  major  operations.  Her  suc 
cess  was  nothing  short  of  a  miracle.  The  to 
tal  number  of  patients  in  her  first  year  of 
service  was  4,422. 

In  1920  four  recruits  were  sent  out  to  this 
lone  front  line  of  the  mission  field.  Miss  Ruth 
Henderson,  Miss  Flora  Foreman,  Miss  Marzie 
Hall,  and  Miss  Eliza  lies,  Miss  lies  being  a 
deaconess  who  was  transferred  from  the 
Home  Department  in  which  she  had  given 
eight  years  of  devoted  service. 


On  February  14,  1918,  there  was  organized 
in  the  African  mission  a  Woman's  Missionary 
Society  with  an  enrollment  of  forty-five  char- 


ter  members.  In  a  short  time  the  number 
was  increased  to  fifty-five.  The  standard  of 
dues  adopted  was  one  egg  or  its  equivalent, 
one  cent,  in  money.  Miss  Woolsey  said: 

At  the  April  meeting  the  women  decided  that  they 
would  like  to  have  a  share  in  the  work  of  God  by  sup 
porting  an  evangelist  in  a  village  which  had  not  yet 
had  one.  Accordinglly,  they  took  the  responsibility  for 
the  payment  of  his  salary,  $1.30.  At  first  the  chief  of 
the  village  refused  to  enter  the  church,  so  the  fifteen 
members  of  the  society  who  are  baptized  Christians 
met  for  about  two  months  with  one  of  the  missionaries 
once  a  week  for  special  prayer  for  the  chief  and  for 
Munadi,  the  evangelist.  The  chief,  we  are  glad  to  say, 
began  going  to  church. 

It  should  be  noted  that  the  labors  of  the 
years  in  Brazil,  China,  and  Korea  had  begun 
to  bear  fruit,  for  in  1920  the  Woman's  Mis 
sionary  Societies  in  those  three  fields  were 
contributing  to  the  uplift  of  Africa. 



To  Christianize  the  community  life  means  to  per 
meate  all  its  activities  and  relationships  with  the  prin 
ciples  and  ideals  of  Jesus.  It  means  to  make  the  whole 
of  life  religious,  so  that  there  shall  be  no  separation 
between  the  spirit  of  worship  in  the  community  and 
the  spirit  of  its  play,  its  work,  and  its  government. 
The  task  is  not  the  endeavor  of  a  day. 

Christianity  demands  a  fraternal  community  for  the 
satisfaction  of  its  ideals.  It  requires  that  men  who  call 
God  Father  should  find  the  way  to  live  as  brothers. 
Now  we  have  rifts  and  chasms.  Our  task  is  to  bring 
the  different  groups  of  our  community  life,  the  divers 
nations  and  races  of  the  world,  together  in  a  real 
brotherhood  until  there  shall  be  no  handicapped,  ex 
ploited,  dispossessed  people,  but  all  shall  live  together 
on  terms  of  equal  opportunity.  Solidarity  is  not  simply 
the  dream  of  the  workers  at  the  bottom.  It  is  the  im 
perative  of  the  gospel. — "Christianising  Community 
Life,"  by  Ward-Edwards. 




IN  the  early  days  of  the  Woman's  Parson 
age  and  Home  Mission  Society  Miss  Sue  Ben 
nett,  the  Secretary  of  the  Kentucky  Confer 
ence  Society,  became  interested  in  the  people 
that  lived  shut  away  in  the  hills  just  within 
sight  of  the  fertile  valleys  in  which  her  home 
town  of  Richmond  was  located.  Her  inter 
est  had  been  aroused  by  the  Rev.  J.  J.  Dickey, 
who  was  struggling  to  maintain  a  school  in  a 
mountain  community  fifty  miles  from  any  rail 
road.  The  great  need  of  these  people  at  her 
very  door  set  her  soul  aflame,  and  through  the 
enlistment  of  the  children  of  her  Conference 
she  planned  to  come  to  the  aid  of  Mr.  Dick 
ey's  school,  which  would  have  to  close  unless 
something  could  be  done  to  meet  the  emer 
gency.  However,  before  she  had  even  taken 
the  first  steps  toward  the  realization  of  this 
plan  her  labors  on  earth  were  ended.  But  the 
women  of  the  Kentucky  Conference  had 
caught,  through  her  inspiration  and  zeal,  a 
12  (177) 


vision  of  the  need,  and  they,  together  with  the 
Central  Committee,  began  to  make  plans  for 
the  mountain  work. 

Mr.  Dickey's  school  was,  in  the  meantime, 
sold  to  the  Presbyterians,  but  plans  were  at 
once  projected  for  the  establishment  of  a 
chain  of  schools  in  other  mountain  sections. 
Mrs.  W.  T.  Pointer,  President  of  the  Ken 
tucky  Conference  Society,  led  in  the  work  and 
was  untiring  in  her  efforts  to  help  raise  the 
needed  funds.  She  sent  out  letters  soliciting 
gifts  and,  together  with  her  husband,  went 
from  place  to  place  helping  to  arouse  interest 
in  the  enterprise. 

London  was  selected  as  the  most  strategic 
point  at  which  to  begin,  and  the  first  term  of 
the  Sue  Bennett  School  was  opened  in  an  old 
seminary  building.  In  1897,  however,  the 
large  administration  building  was  completed, 
and  the  school  was  opened  that  fall  with  sev 
enty-five  pupils  and  a  faculty  numbering  five. 
The  first  class  was  graduated  in  1901. 

Prof.  J.  C.  Lewis,  of  the  Liverpool  Uni 
versity,  a  man  well  equipped  for  the  work,  was 
for  twenty  years  president  of  the  school. 

In  1917  Prof.  A.  W.  Mohn,  of  the  Ohio 
Wesleyan  and  of  the  University  of  Chicago, 
and  for  nine  years  the  head  of  the  Ruth  Har- 

ANSWERING  THE  HOME  CALL.         179 

grove  School,  Key  West,  succeeded  Professor 
Lewis  as  principal. 

From  its  modest  beginning  the  London 
School  grew  to  be  one  of  the  most  efficient 
secondary  schools  in  the  State  of  Kentucky. 
The  report  of  1919  shows  an  enrollment  of 
students  as  follows:  model  school,  125;  high 
school,  101 ;  normal  school,  74;  school  of 
business,  75;  school  of  music,  172.  The  stu 
dents  numbered  397  and  the  faculty  19. 

The  extent  of  the  influence  of  Sue  Bennett 
can  be  measured  only  by  the  life  and  work  of 
its  students.  It  will  be  found  that  they  have 
been  scattered  far  and  wide,  engaging  success 
fully  in  the  various  vocations  of  life — one  as 
a  lawyer  in  Porto  Rico ;  another  as  a  mission 
ary  in  China;  others  as  superintendents  and 
principals  of  schools  in  New  York,  Georgia, 
and  Florida ;  some  as  students  at  West  Point ; 
others  working  as  engineers  in  Pennsylvania 
and  Kentucky;  and  still  others  as  prominent 
business  men.  In  1919  it  was  calculated  that 
ninety  per  cent  of  all  the  teachers  in  the  county 
of  Laurel,  the  county  in  which  the  school  was 
located,  had  been  students  at  the  Sue  Ben 
nett  School.  No  more  fitting  memorial  could 
be  erected  to  the  one  in  whose  heart  this  work 


for  mountain  boys  and  girls  was  born  than 
this  great  investment  in  life  and  character. 


In  1895  another  mountain  school  was 
opened  in  Brevard,  N.  C,  by  Mr.  Fitch  Tay 
lor.  The  Woman's  Parsonage  and  Home 
Mission  Society  was  asked  to  share  the  ex 
pense  of  this  school  with  the  Epworth  Leagues 
of  North  Carolina  by  supporting  one  teacher. 
In  response  to  this  request,  Miss  Armstrong 
was  employed  to  teach  in  what  was  then 
known  as  the  Brevard  Epworth  School.  The 
first  term  was  opened  with  one  boarding  pu 
pil,  who,  it  was  said,  had  been  paid  to  come. 
This  pupil,  with  a  few  from  the  town,  made 
up  the  first  enrollment. 

In  1900  the  Western  North  Carolina  Con 
ference  adopted  the  school  and  appointed  trus 
tees.  In  1903,  however,  it  was  offered  as  a 
gift  to  the  Woman's  Board  of  Home  Missions. 
A  building  had  been  begun  which  was  still 
unfinished,  and  the  committee  of  men  who 
met  the  committee  from  the  Woman's  Board 
promised  to  be  responsible  for  its  completion 
if  Miss  Belle  Bennett  would  tour  the  State 
in  interest  of  funds.  The  school  had  been 
closed  for  two  years,  and  to  the  women  this 

ANSWERING  THE  HOME  CALL.         181 

call  to  enter  into  this  new  door  of  opportun 
ity  seemed  very  clear.  Accordingly,  the  work 
was  undertaken,  and  Prof.  E.  E.  Bishop  was 
employed  as  Principal.  He  says  in  his  first 

About  September  11,  1903,  I  was  employed  to  take 
charge  of  the  Brevard  Industrial  School,  to  begin  Oc 
tober  1,  with  everything  finished  and  furnished.  In 
stead  of  finding  the  house  finished  and  furnished,  I 
found  a  large  building  unpaintccl  except  priming,  with 
out  windows,  doors,  chimneys,  or  floors.  The  plaster 
ing  was  about  half  done,  and  the  force  at  work  on  the 
house  consisted  of  only  two  carpenters  and  two  plas 
terers.  I  learned  also  that  the  treasury  was  entirely 
empty,  the  building  committee  in  debt,  and  no  funds  in 
sight  from  any  source.  To  make  matters  still  worse, 
there  were  no  written  contracts  and  no  specifications. 
The  first  thing  to  be  done  was  to  get  money  that  we 
might  put  on  a  large  force  of  men  at  once.  The  com 
mittee  was  persuaded  to  borrow  about  a  thousand  dol 
lars.  On  October  20  we  opened  school  with  a  public 
meeting.  Miss  Bennett,  Mrs.  Branner,  and  Mrs.  Acton 
were  present.  The  next  day  fifty-two  pupils  were  en 
rolled.  The  enrollment  has  steadily  increased  and  is 
now  one  hundred  and  four. 

Mrs.  F.  H.  E.  Ross  says  concerning  the 
final  completion  of  the  building  and  its  pres 

Money  was  borrowed  to  put  the  building  in  shape 
and  a  mortgage  given.  Then  came  the  struggle ;  for 
the  Board  would  not  accept  it  till  finished,  furnished, 


and  unencumbered.  Something  was  secured  from  the 
Weddington  estate,  and  the  Western  North  Carolina 
Conference  appropriated  a  few  hundred  dollars  from 
the  school  fund  year  after  year.  The  columns  of  the 
North  Carolina  Christian  Advocate  were  open  to  our 
use,  a  .1  funds  were  solicited  until  we  lacked  only  $325 
to  lift  the  mortgage.  A  note  was  given  for  this  amount 
signed  by  some  friends,  one  of  whom  was  our  sainted 
Dr.  George  H.  Detwiler,  then  pastor  of  West  Market 
Street  Church,  Greensboro,  N.  C.  In  June,  1905,  the 
annual  meeting  of  the  Conference  Society  was  held  in 
the  city  of  Charlotte.  On  Saturday  afternoon  the  long- 
prayed-for,  hoped-for  event  took  place — the  presenta 
tion  of  Brevard  Industrial  School  to  the  Woman's 
Home  Mission  Board.  Dr.  Van  Atkins,  chairman  of 
the  Board  of  Trustees  of  the  school,  made  a  very  pleas 
ing  address  in  presenting  the  school,  and  Mrs.  Frank 
Siler,  in  her  usual  happy  manner,  accepted  the  prop 
erty  for  the  Board. 

Professor  Bishop  served  until  1907  and 
was  then  succeeded  by  Prof.  C.  H.  Trow- 
bridge,  a  graduate  of  Harvard  University. 

The  growth  and  growing  influence  of  Bre 
vard  Institute  is  shown  in  the  1914  report  of 
its  principal: 

Brevard  Institute  seems  to  be  holding  its  own  in 
every  respect  and  going  forward  in  many  ways.  The 
academic  work  is  decidedly  better  than  at  any  previous 
time,  the  faculty  having  more  experience  than  ever  be 
fore  and  holding  the  students  to  a  higher  grade  of 
accuracy.  The  grammar  and  high  school  are  very 
much  crowded.  The  normal  department  is  working 
along  previous  lines,  and  its  graduates  are  still  in  de- 


mand  wherever  the  work  of  the  department  is  known. 
The  music  classes  are  very  much  as  they  have  been, 
though  in  the  fall  there  were  so  many  pupils  that  it 
was  necessary  to  employ  an  additional  teacher  for  two 
days  in  the  week.  The  commercial  department  con 
tinues  its  efficiency  and  is  turning  out  well-equipped 
men  and  women,  who  are  always  placed  within  a  few 
weeks  after  they  are  ready  for  a  position.  In  no  case 
has  any  graduate  failed  to  be  successful.  The  domes 
tic  art  department  has  more  students  than  ever  before 
and  maintains  the  high  grade  of  work  which  it  has 
been  doing.  The  purchase  of  additional  ground  gives 
.  the  agricultural  department  better  opportunities  than 
ever.  There  has  been  a  considerable  increase  since  last 
year  in  the  amount  of  stock  and  in  the  value  of  the 
farm  machinery.  The  youngest  department  to  be  or 
ganized  is  household  economics.  It  is  getting  well 
under  way  this  year  and  has  developed  a  course  that  is 
thoroughly  practical  and  valuable.  Small  classes  have 
been  organized  in  telegraphy,  plumbing,  and  carpentry. 

A  summer  school  was  started  in  1913.  Very  little 
advertising  was  done,  but  there  were  enough  students 
to  make  it  evident  that  summer  work  is  practicable  in 
this  summer  resort  town.  Two  summer  school  camps 
for  boys  will  be  in  operation  this  summer.  A  number 
of  the  girls  made  a  respectable  income  for  themselves 
by  running  a  boarding  house  during  the  vacation 
months.  This  will  be  continued  next  year.  The  cot 
tages  on  the  place  are  rented  in  the  summer,  and  for 
several  years  a  most  delightful  colony  of  people  has 
spent  the  summer  here. 

Th  relations  between  the  school  and  the  community 
continue  most  cordial.  Some  members  of  the  Council 
canvassed  Brevard  for  two  days  in  July  and  secured 
subscriptions  amounting  to  more  than  three  dollars  for 
every  man,  woman,  and  child  in  the  town. 


Six  or  seven  acres  of  ground  adjoining  the  campus 
have  been  purchased  during  the  year,  making  a  campus 
of  about  twenty-six  acres  located  within  the  corporate 
limits  of  the  town  and  still  set  off  in  such  a  manner 
as  to  secure  a  very  high  degree  of  protection.  It  would 
be  difficult  to  arrange  the  school  property  more  con 

With  its  enlarged  boundary  and  the  new  administra 
tion  building,  it  seems  that  Brevard  is  about  to  enter 
upon  an  era  of  increased  growth.  The  dormitories 
have  been  practically  full  all  the  time  during  the  past 
three  years,  and  these  developments  will  probably  cause 
a  very  great  increase  in  the  number  of  applicants  for 
admission.  There  are  few  schools  in  this  section  which 
are  devoting  as  much  of  their  energies  to  vocational 
work  as  Brevard  Institute  is  doing,  and  it  seems  that 
the  Institute  should  be  able  always  to  maintain  its  lead 
with  the  start  it  will  have  when  school  opens  next  fall. 

The  success  of  Brevard  Institute,  like  that 
of  the  Sue  Bennett  School,  is  measured  by  the 
success  of  its  students,  who  have  been  able 
to  occupy  positions  of  trust  and  responsibility. 


The  plan  for  the  establishment  of  Sue  Ben 
nett,  though  first  to  be  conceived,  was  not 
the  first  to  be  realized,  for  in  1894,  three  years 
previous  to  the  opening  of  the  Sue  Bennett, 
a  school  was  begun  in  Tampa,  Fla.,  for  Cuban 
children  with  Miss  Jennie  Smither  as  Prin 

ANSWERING  THE  HOME  CALL.         185 

Mrs.  Eliza  Wolff,  of  St.  Louis.  Mo.,  had 
chanced  to  spend  a  season  in  Southern  Flor 
ida  and  was  much  moved  by  the  suffering  of 
the  Cuban  people  who  were  beginning  to 
flock  to  our  shores  as  workers  in  the  tobacco 
factories.  These  factories  were  being  moved 
into  Florida  in  order  to  avoid  the  interruption 
caused  by  the  conditions  which  eventuated  in 
the  Spanish-American  War.  Mrs.  Wolff  ap 
pealed  to  the  Woman's  Foreign  Board  and 
as  a  result,  it  was  recognized  that  here  was  an 
open  door  which  the  newly  organized  Wom 
an's  Parsonage  and  Home  Mission  Society 
should  enter.  At  the  second  convention  of  this 
society,  which  was  held  in  Nashville,  Tenn., 
October  2-5,  1894,  the  need  for  a  school  on 
the  Florida  coast  was  presented  and  a  propo 
sition  made  to  raise  one  thousand  dollars  by 
securing  one  hundred  ten-dollar  shares.  With 
in  fifteen  minutes  all  the  shares  were  taken. 

A  few  months  later  the  society  opened  its 
first  school,  Wolff  Mission,  so  called  in  hon 
or  of  the  one  whose  interest  had  launched 
the  enterprise.  In  1897  Miss  Mary  Bruce, 
afterwards  Mrs.  N.  F.  Alexander,  a  returned 
missionary  from  Brazil,  became  Principal. 
Through  her  friendly  visiting,  the  homes  of 
the  people  were  opened  and  the  Cuban  worn- 


en  began  to  identify  themselves  with  the  Cu 
ban  Church.  Night  schools  were  undertaken 
for  the  men,  many  of  whom  were  eager  to 
learn  the  English  language.  Numbers  of  those 
in  attendance  later  became  interested  in  the 

In  1898  Miss  Bruce  was  transferred  to  Key 
West  and  Miss  Marcia  Marvin,  Miss  Eliza 
beth  Todd,  Miss  Josephine  Baker,  Miss  Lula 
Ford,  and  Miss  Lotie  Adams,  each  in  turn, 
served  as  Principal  of  the  school. 

The  following  from  the  report  of  1900 
shows  some  of  the  far-reaching  results  brought 
about  by  the  institution: 

One  Cuban  girl  returned  to  Cuba  and  now  has  a 
Sunday  school  in  her  house  at  a  point  where  there  are 
no  other  workers.  A  young  man,  a  laughing,  fun- 
loving  boy,  who  came  to  the  Friday  evening  socials, 
was  brought  into  the  Church.  He  returned  to  Cuba, 
married,  and  held  preaching  service  in  his  house,  thus 
forming  the  nucleus  of  a  Church.  And  so  it  is,  here 
one  and  there  another. 

In  the  year  1914-15  more  pupils  were  en 
rolled  in  Wolff  Mission  than  ever  before,  but 
because  of  the  better  opportunities  then  being 
provided  by  the  public  schools  of  Florida  the 
institution  was  closed  in  1916  and  the  work  of 
Wolff  Settlement  inaugurated.  A  gymnasium 

ANSWERING  THE  HOME  CALL.         187 

was  erected,  a  clinic  established,  and  a  day 
nursery  opened.  The  institution  was  thus 
made  to  serve  the  larger  needs  of  the  com 


The  year  following  the  opening  of  Wolff 
Mission  (1895)  a  small  school  in  West  Tampa 
was  opened  in  the  home  of  two  Spanish  wom 
en,  Mrs.  Rosa  and  Miss  Emelina  Valdes,  who 
were  converts  from  Key  West.  The  zeal  of 
these  women  and  their  sympathetic  appeal  to 
the  people  made  the  work  a  success  from  the 
beginning.  Mrs.  Valdes  deeded  to  the  Wom 
an's  Home  Mission  Board  a  lot  adjoining 
her  home,  and  upon  this  lot  they  built  a  two- 
room  schoolhouse,  which  served  also  as  a 
church.  Mrs.  Valdes,  with  the  assistance  of 
her  niece,  Miss  Emelina  Valdes,  continued  in 
charge  of  this  school  for  twenty  years.  The 
little  rooms  were  always  full,  and  the  chil 
dren  of  the  day  school  crowded  to  the  Sun 
day  school  on  the  Sabbath.  Many  of  them  be 
came  Christians ;  years  later  Christian  fam 
ilies  were  found  on  the  Island  of  Cuba  who 
had  received  their  inspiration  while  getting 
the  rudiments  of  an  education  from  these  god 
ly  women. 


After  Mrs.  Valdes's  death,  in  1912,  the 
school  was  made  into  a  Wesley  House,  where 
social  features  and  gospel  teachings  were  car 
ried  on  with  marked  success.  The  Council 
voted  that  the  new  building,  when  erected, 
should  be  called  the  Rosa  Valdes  Settlement, 
thereby  perpetuating  the  work  of  the  founder 
of  the  school. 


In  1898  Miss  Mary  Bruce  opened  in  Key 
West,  Fla.,  a  school  which  afterwards  came 
to  be  called  the  Ruth  Hargrove  Institute,  in 
honor  of  the  General  Secretary,  Mrs.  R.  K. 
Hargrove,  who  was  vitally  interested  in  the 
development  of  the  Cuban  work.  The  enroll 
ment  was  large  from  the  beginning,  and  it 
soon  became  necessary  to  broaden  the  scope 
of  the  school,  enlarging  its  capacity  to  meet 
the  need  not  only  of  the  Cuban  children,  but 
also  of  the  English-speaking  children  of  the 
community  who  were  being  forced,  for  lack  of 
Protestant  schools,  to  patronize  Catholic  in 

Miss  Emily  Reede  was  the  second  Principal, 
and  during  her  five  years'  administration  the 
school  grew  to  such  proportions  that  the  cam 
pus  was  enlarged  and  plans  were  made  for  a 


new  building.  In  1909  Prof.  A.  W.  Mohn 
took  charge,  and  in  1910  the  enrollment 
reached  seven  hundred. 

In  1914,  on  their  return  from  Brazil,  Miss 
Bennett  and  Miss  Gibson  visited  Key  West 
and  gave  the  following  account  of  the  school: 

Key  West  has  a  population  of  25,000,  10,000  of  whom 
are  Negroes.  The  property  we  own  is  in  the  suburbs — 
in  the  geographical  center  of  the  island,  we  are  told. 
There  are  four  buildings  on  a  lot  550x200  feet,  which 
will  accommodate  five  hundred  pupils  (20  boarders). 
It  is  valued  at  $60,000.  There  are  eleven  churches  in 
Key  West,  four  of  which  are  Methodist,  having  a  mem 
bership  of  eight  hundred.  No  other  mission  board  is 
at  work  there.  There  are  two  Roman  Catholic  schools, 
two  public  schools,  and  forty  schools  for  Negroes. 
Bruce  Hall  is  a  fine  new  school  building,  containing  the 
largest  auditorium  in  the  city,  which  is  used  sometimes 
for  lectures  and  concerts  when  a  large  hall  is  needed. 
Ruth  Hargrove  building  is  the  home  for  teachers  and 
students.  Then  there  is  the  attractive  Mattie  Wright 
Kindergarten  building  and  the  residence  of  the  prin 
cipal.  The  enrollment  this  year  from  September  1  to 
January  1  is  525;  in  1911  it  was  613;  in  1912  it  was 
609;  and  it  is  likely  that  the  present  year  will  see  as 
large  a  representation.  The  school  has  twelve  grades, 
a  high-school  department,  a  music  department,  a  com 
mercial  department,  and  a  kindergarten  with  thirty- 
one  pupils.  The  faculty  mimbers  nineteen,  of  whom 
five  are  men.  All  teachers  are  Protestants.  There  are 
thirteen  Methodists,  two  Baptists,  one  Congregationalist, 
one  Presbyterian,  and  two  Episcopalians.  The  Bible  is 
taught  in  every  grade  by  the  teachers.  Professor 


Mohn  feels  the  need  of  a  graded  course  in  the  Bible 
covering  twelve  years.  We  visited  every  grade  and 
saw  the  work  on  the  board  for  examinations,  and  we 
approved  what  we  saw.  The  night  that  we  left  a  con 
cert  was  held  in  the  chapel.  For  four  years  the  prin 
cipal  has  had  a  lyceum  course,  charging  $5  per  season 
for  ten  entertainments.  The  immediate  and  imperative 
needs  are  a  teachers'  cottage  and  athletic  grounds.  In 
answer  to  our  question,  "What  returns  have  come  to 
the  school  or  Church  from  the  pupils?"  we  were  told 
that  they  are  better  citizens,  better  Christians,  better 
men  and  women.  They  have  been  of  immense  benefit 
to  the  Church.  The  cost  of  maintaining  this  school 
was  $9,875.80  plus  fees  of  $4,815.57. 

It  will  be  seen  that  the  success  of  Ruth 
Hargrove  School  was  marked.  The  demand 
it  created  for  education  brought  about  such 
improved  conditions  in  the  public  schools  of 
Key  West  that  by  1917  they  were  adequate  to 
meet  the  community's  need. 

Mrs.  MacDonell,  Executive  Secretary,  says 
in  her  report  of  that  year: 

The  situation  has  greatly  changed  during  these  years, 
and  we  dare  assert  that  the  school  has  done  much 
toward  creating  a  demand  for  better  educational  ad 
vantages  and  that  it  has  saved  Key  West  to  Prot 

At  that  time  the  building  was  leased  for  a 
marine  hospital,  and  the  following  year  was 
bought  by  the  government  at  a  price  of  fifty 


thousand  dollars.  Some  years  previous,  the 
faculty  of  Ruth  Hargrove  had  opened  an  ex 
tension  day  school  in  a  congested  Cuban  dis 
trict.  This  was  continued  and  land  purchased 
in  this  district  for  the  erection  of  a  settlement 


Laredo  Seminary,  the  history  of  which  is 
told  in  the  chapter  on  Mexico,  was  transferred 
to  the  Home  Department  of  the  Woman's  Mis 
sionary  Council  in  1913.  The  name  was 
then  changed  to  Holding  Institute  for  the  pur 
pose  of  perpetuating  the  work  of  Miss  Nannie 
Holding,  who  had  for  so  many  years  put  her 
life  and  energy  into  the  development  of  the 

The  school  began  its  first  year  with  four 
pupils,  but  in  1917  it  enrolled  three  hundred 
and  seventy-six,  and  more  than  two  hundred 
were  turned  away  for  lack  of  room.  In  1914 
seventy-five  pupils  came  from  across  the 
border.  Dr.  J.  M.  Skinner  was  appointed 
Principal  of  the  school  at  the  time  of  its 
transfer  to  the  Home  Department  and  was  still 
in  charge  in  1920.  Holding  Institute,  in  ad 
dition  to  a  regular  high-school  curriculum,  has 
provided  a  normal  course  for  teachers,  a  com- 


mercial  course  for  the  training  of  clerks,  ste 
nographers,  and  bookkeepers,  and  a  course  in 
domestic  arts,  thus  giving  training  for  nearly 
every  walk  in  life  upon  which  the  students 
might  enter. 


In  1903  Deaconess  Annie  Heath,  while 
working  in  Thomasville,  Ga.,  found  a  four 
teen-year-old  girl  in  need  of  protection.  She 
was  too  old  for  an  orphanage,  and  the  deacon 
ess  could  find  no  means  of  removing  her  from 
her  dangerous  environment.  She  appealed 
to  the  women  of  the  local  auxiliary,  and 
through  their  influence  Mr.  Walter  Blasin- 
game,  of  that  city,  gave  four  acres  of  land 
and  a  house  of  thirteen  rooms,  where  Miss 
Heath  and  Efrle,  the  homeless  girl,  were  sent 
to  live.  This  was  the  beginning  of  the  Vashti 
Industrial  School  for  dependent  girls.  The 
home  was  named  Vashti,  thus  honoring  Mr. 
Blasingame's  mother.  Miss  Heath  and  Ef- 
fie  were  not  long  alone,  for  two  other  girls 
were  discovered  in  the  poorhouse  and  brought 
to  the  home.  Within  two  years,  thirty-three 
girls  had  found  their  way  to  the  school,  and 
the  house  was  now  too  small  for  their  accom 
modation.  The  expense,  too,  had  become 


more  than  the  local  auxiliary  could  meet,  and, 
as  a  consequence,  the  work  was  transferred  in 
1905  to  the  Woman's  Board  of  Home  Mis 

Ten  years  before  the  opening  of  the  Vashti 
School,  a  cigar  factory  was  opened  in  Cubana 
(little  Cuba),  a  suburb  of  Thomasville,  but, 
as  it  was  found  impossible  to  secure  Cuban 
labor,  in  a  few  years  the  enterprise  failed. 

When  Vashti  School  outgrew  its  home,  the 
Cubana  property  was  selected  as  a  desirable 
location.  It  was  purchased  by  the  citizens  of 
Thomasville  and  presented  to  the  Woman's 
Board  of  Home  Missions  in  1908.  Prof.  E. 
E.  Bishop  was  elected  Principal  in  the  fall  of 
1907,  and  the  next  January  seventy-five  girls 
and  teachers  took  possession  of  the  new  home. 
Since  that  time  there  has  been  accommodation 
for  ninety  girls  at  a  time,  and  yet  not  more 
than  fifteen  per  cent  of  the  applicants  has  been 
received.  The  girls  who  have  been  trained 
here  have  received  an  eighth  grade  literary 
course  and,  in  addition,  practical  industrial 
training.  With  few  exceptions,  characters 
have  been  formed  that  have  stood  the  test  of 
life  after  leaving  the  school.  Many  have  taken 
the  responsibility  of  homes  of  their  own,  while 
others  have  gone  to  work  in  schools  and  fac- 


tories  and  hospitals.     In  1919  Miss  Charlotte 
Dye  was  elected  Principal. 


At  a  meeting  of  the  Woman's  Board  of 
Home  Missions,  held  in  St.  Louis,  Mo.,  in 
1901,  a  request  was  presented  from  Dr.  Walk 
er,  President  of  Paine  College,  Augusta,  Ga., 
asking  for  the  establishment  of  an  industrial 
department  for  the  Negro  girls  attending  that 

Miss  Belle  H.  Bennett,  Mrs.  J.  D.  Ham 
mond,  and  Mrs.  R.  W.  MacDonell  were 
guests  of  Mr.  Richard  Scruggs.  Early  on 
Sunday  morning  the  three  were  in  prayer  to 
gether.  Each  arose  from  her  knees  persuaded 
that  the  Board  should  undertake  this  work 
and  that  this  was  the  day  to  present  it  public 
ly  and  take  a  collection  for  its  beginning.  Miss 
Bennett  at  once  called  ten  of  the  women  over 
the  telephone  to  come  to  the  church  for  an 
executive  session.  These  ten  called  others,  so 
that  promptly  at  nine  o'clock  all  responded 
to  the  roll  call  in  the  pastor's  study  at  St. 
John's  Church.  Miss  Bennett  told  them  of 
the  conviction  that  had  come  to  the  group  of 
three.  A  resolution  was  promptly  offered, 
and  after  discussion  a  vote  was  taken  which 

ANSWERING  THE  HOME  CALL.         195 

was  unanimous,  with  one  exception.  The  dis 
senting  vote  came  from  one  of  the  most  en 
thusiastic  missionary  women,  who  held  a  con 
viction  that  she  was  not  authorized  to  repre 
sent  her  Conference  in  this  matter.  There 
were  many  who  feared  that  the  undertaking 
would  be  unpopular,  but  all  were  willing  to 
follow  God  rather  than  man. 

Miss  Bennett  was  requested  to  present  the 
matter  to  the  congregation  after  the  sermon, 
which  was  preached  on  that  morning  by  Dr. 
Shailer  Matthews.  At  no  time  in  her  life 
had  she  spoken  more  clearly  or  with  greater 
conviction.  When  the  collection  was  taken 
a  number  of  men  present  were  so  moved  that 
they  arose  at  once  to  make  large  contribu 
tions.  Dr.  Palmore,  with  streaming  eyes, 
pledged  $500,  and  Miss  Mary  Helm  gave 
$200.  Miss  Bennett  subscribed  $500,  and 
practically  every  man  and  woman  contributed 
something.  Later,  Mr.  Richard  Scruggs  and 
Mr.  Murray  Carlton  gave  $500  each.  Thus 
was  launched  the  girls'  industrial  department 
of  Paine  College,  and  within  two  years  two 
buildings  were  erected  on  three  acres  of  land 
adjacent  to  the  school.  Miss  Ellen  Young, 
graduate  of  Hampton  Institute,  was  secured 
as  matron  in  1902  and  for  nine  years  rendered 


valuable  service.  She  was  assisted  by  three 
other  teachers  in  this  department.  In  1913 
Bennett  Hall,  a  large  up-to-date  dormitory, 
was  erected  at  a  cost  of  $27,000,  a  fitting  mon 
ument  to  the  faith  and  conviction  of  the  one 
who  had  lead  the  women  to  take  this  step  in 
the  name  of  the  Master.  Concerning  this 
work,  Mrs.  MacDonell,  former  Executive 
Secretary  of  the  Home  Department,  writes  in 

There  are  many  colored  teachers,  wives,  and  mothers, 
graduates  of  Paine  College,  whose  lives  and  homes  at 
test  the  value  of  the  training  at  the  Annex.  This  was 
particularly  true  in  the  days  when  Ellen  Young  was 
matron.  Many  former  students  have  written  me.  I 
have  met  others  in  my  travels,  all  of  whom  have  given 
witness  to  lives  made  stronger  and  better. 


The  appeal  of  one  unfortunate  girl,  yearn 
ing  for  a  chance  to  lead  a  clean  life,  led  to 
the  establishment  of  the  home  in  Dallas,  Tex., 
which  later  came  to  be  known  as  the  Virginia 
K.  Johnson  School.  When  no  place  could  be 
found  for  her  shelter,  Mrs.  Johnson  was  led 
to  the  determination  to  open  a  Door  of  Hope. 
The  King's  Daughters  were  enlisted,  and 
through  their  efforts  a  small  building  was 
rented,  while  other  Christian  women  helped 


bear  the  expenses  of  the  upkeep.  It  was 
found  difficult,  however,  to  maintain  their  in 
terest  and  Mrs.  Johnson  appealed  in  vain  to 
the  charitable  organizations  of  the  city  to  take 
over  the  work.  Finally,  she  brought  the  mat 
ter  before  the  North  Texas  Conference  Home 
Mission  Society  at  its  annual  meeting  in 
Gainesville  in  1895.  After  much  prayer  and 
consideration,  the  women  of  the  Conference 
decided  to  undertake  the  support  and  enlarge 
ment  of  the  institution.  There  was  not  an 
available  dollar  in  the  treasury  and  a  debt 
rested  on  the  local  group  in  Dallas.  There 
was,  however,  a  vision  of  a  long  neglected 
need,  the  call  of  the  Master,  and  prayer  and 
faith.  A  gift  of  land  having  been  secured 
from  Mrs.  Ann  Browder  Cunningham,  Mrs. 
Johnson  and  Mrs.  W.  C.  Young  set  out  to 
raise  money  for  the  building.  An  agreement 
was  made  with  an  architect  for  a  a  five-thou 
sand-dollar  building,  expenses  to  be  paid  week 
by  week,  and  work  to  be  discontinued  when 
money  failed.  The  work,  however,  never 
stopped  until  the  building  was  finished,  and 
there  was  never  more  money  in  the  treasury 
than  was  needed  to  pay  the  week's  bills.  In 
1898  the  North  Texas  Conference  turned  the 
property  over  to  the  Woman's  Board  of  Home 


Missions  free  of  debt.  After  a  few  years  the 
need  of  a  better  location,  more  land,  and  larger 
buildings  resulted  in  the  erection  of  a  beauti 
ful  $150,000  plant.  Up  to  this  time  the  school 
had  been  known  as  the  Ann  Browder  Cun 
ningham  Mission  Home,  but  was  now  re 
named  in  honor  of  Mrs.  Virginia  K.  John 
son,  whose  loving  service  had  provided  for 
thousands  of  friendless  girls  the  shelter  of  a 

During  the  early  years  Mrs.  Johnson  acted 
as  Principal,  but  later  she  was  made  agent 
and  Mrs.  M.  L.  Stone  became  Principal.  She 
served  three  years  and  was  then  succeeded  by 
Miss  Sue  Lyon  and  later  by  Mrs.  O.  M.  Ab 
bott.  After  four  years  of  service  Mrs.  Ab 
bott  resigned,  and  Mrs.  Stone  was  elected  for 
the  second  time.  In  1920  she  had  already 
given  over  ten  years  of  efficient  service  to  this 
institution,  within  whose  walls  many  hopeless 
lives  had  been  restored  to  self-support,  inde 
pendence,  and  true  character. 



THE  organized  work  of  city  missions  in  the 
Church  grew  out  of  a  real  need  and  had  its 
beginnings  in  the  auxiliaries  of  the  Woman's 
Home  Mission  Societies  through  the  appoint 
ment  ,of  visiting  committees.  In  the  first 
quadrennial  report  of  the  Woman's  Parson 
age  and  Home  Mission  Society,  the  General 
Secretary,  Miss  Lucinda  B.  Helm,  says:  "The 
majority  of  the  auxiliaries  report  good  work 
done  by  committees  in  visiting  and  aiding  the 
poor,  in  Bible  readings,  in  visits  to  the  jails 
and  benevolent  institutions,  and  in  developing 
Sunday  school  work.  Many  conversions  have 
resulted  in  the  large  cities." 


The  Central  Committee  soon  began  to  real 
ize  that  if  the  work  of  city  missions  was  to 
develop  to  any  proportions  there  must  be 
some  centralizing,  directing,  and  conserving 
force.  As  a  result  of  this  conviction,  a  con 
vention  was  called  in  St.  Louis,  May  9,  1893, 
for  the  purpose  of  considering  plans  of  city 



evangelization.  Miss  Helm's  report  of  this 
convention  says:  "Every  one  felt  the  Spirit  of 
God  was  present.  Great  enthusiasm  was 
aroused  and,  like  another  Pentecost,  its  in 
fluence  radiated  throughout  the  Church." 
The  address  of  Dr.  Walter  Lambuth  on  "City 
Evangelization"  helped  greatly  in  arousing  the 
convictions  of  the  women  who  attended  this 

This  marked  the  beginning  of  a  united  ef 
fort  in  the  work  of  city  missions.  At  the  close 
of  the  convention,  representatives  of  the  St. 
Louis  auxiliaries  came  together  at  the  call  of 
Miss  Helm  and  organized  for  work,  employ 
ing  Mrs.  M.  R.  Skinner  for  special  service. 
A  few  weeks  later,  the  General  Secretary  was 
called  to  Nashville,  where  an  organization  was 
effected  and  Misses  Tina  and  Emma  Tucker 
were  employed  as  city  missionaries.  Some 
months  later,  Miss  Helm  visited  Atlanta  and 
organized  the  forces  in  that  city.  Houston, 
New  Orleans,  and  Los  Angeles  are  also  men 
tioned  in  the  reports  as  having  begun  a  united 
work  as  a  result  of  the  St.  Louis  convention. 


At  the  beginning  of  the  second  quadrennium 
(1894),  Miss  Helm  resigned  as  General  Secre- 


,tary  and  Mrs.  Nathan  Scarritt  (afterwards 
Mrs.  R.  K.  Hargrove)  was  elected  to  the  of 

Another  advanced  step  in  the  permanent  or 
ganization  of  city  mission  work  was  made  in 
this  year,  when  the  General  Conference  pro 
vided  for  the  formation  of  city  mission  boards, 
these  to  be  composed  of  two  members  from 
each  cooperating  auxiliary,  each  auxiliary 
being  allowed  to  elect  its  own  representatives. 
The  finances  were  to  be  provided  for  by  the 
different  societies  taking  their  apportionments. 

Mrs.  Hargrove  continued  to  serve  as  Gen 
eral  Secretary  until  the  year  1900.  Her  re 
port  of  that  year  shows  that  city  mission  work 
was  being  conducted  in  Nashville,  in  New 
Orleans,  in  Kansas  City,  and  in  Waco.  All 
of  these  cities  were  employing  workers,  and 
two  of  them  were  raising  budgets  of  approxi 
mately  twelve  hundred  dollars  each.  St.  Louis 
had  a  city  mission  board  and  was  carrying  on 
quite  an  extended  work  through  volunteer 
service.  The  types  of  service  up  to  this  time 
had  been  largely  that  of  rescue  work,  house- 
to-house  visitation,  and  distribution  of  litera 
ture — for  the  most  part,  purely  personal  work ; 
although  there  had  begun  to  be  some  institu- 


tional  features ;  such  as,  kindergartens,  sewing 
schools,  and  mother's  and  children's  meetings. 


Mrs.  R.  W.  MacDonell  was  elected  to  suc 
ceed  Mrs.  Hargrove  as  General  Secretary. 
Her  broad  vision  and  constructive  mind  soon 
began  to  give  new  form  to  the  work.  The 
leaders  of  philanthropy  were  beginning  to  real 
ize  that  of  far  greater  value  than  work  for 
people  was  work  ivith  people,  so  here  and 
there,  through  the  social  settlement,  the  con 
tagion  of  the  higher  life  was  being  brought 
to  bear  upon  the  hitherto  detached  masses  of 
the  crowded  cities  and  industrial  centers. 

So  it  was,  that  with  Mrs.  MacDonell's  ad 
ministration  there  began  another  stage  in  the 
development  of  city  missions;  and  in  co 
operation  with  the  Nashville  City  Board  the 
new  General  Secretary  opened  the  first  Church 
settlement  in  the  South  in  September,  1901. 
A  house,  which  had  formerly  been  a  pool 
room,  was  rented  and  made  habitable.  Be 
low  there  was  a  large  hall  in  which  the  work 
was  conducted,  while  above  were  clean  and  at 
tractive  living  rooms  for  the  workers.  Miss 
Minerva  Clyce  (afterwards  Mrs.  J.  E.  Me- 


Culloch)  and  Miss  Martha  Frost  were  the 
first  Residents. 

Miss  Clyce  had  been  trained  in  the  Scarritt 
Bible  and  Training  School;  and  her  alertness 
of  mind,  powers  of  initiative,  and  unfailing 
devotion  especially  fitted  her  for  leadership  in 
the  new  enterprise.  This  settlement  was 
the  center  of  all  eyes,  for  it  was  to  set  the 
standard  for  all  future  work. 

Pioneering  the  way  as  good  neighbors  in  a 
community  full  of  poverty,  ignorance,  and 
drunkeness  meant  days  and  nights  of  toil  and 
anxiety.  It  proved  to  be  worth  the  cost,  how 
ever,  for  it  was  found,  fifteen  years  later,  that 
self-respecting  people  were  choosing  to  live 
in  this  same  community  because  of  the  ad 
vantages  of  the  settlement,  so  changed  had 
the  community  become. 

In  the  year  following  the  establishment  of 
the  settlement  in  Nashville,  three  other  settle 
ments  were  opened.  At  Atlanta,  Ga.,  work 
was  begun  in  the  Fulton  Bag  and  Cotton  Mill 
community  with  Miss  Rosa  Lowe,  a  trained 
nurse,  as  Head  Resident.  This  was  for  years 
one  of  the  largest  settlements  throughout  the 
connection,  carrying  on  the  most  varied  ac 

In  the  fall  of  1902  Miss  Estelle  Haskin  was 


called  to  Dallas,  Tex.  There  were  months  of 
waiting  on  her  part  before  a  footing  could  be 
secured  in  the  district  which  seemed  to  have 
the  most  crying  need.  Finally,  because  noth 
ing  better  could  be  done,  a  small  four-room 
cottage  was  rented  and  she,  with  two  conse 
crated  girls  from  the  Ann  Browder  Mission 
Home  and  Training  School,  went  to  live  in  a 
neighborhood  where  there  were  twenty-five 
saloors.  within  a  radius  of  six  blocks  of  the 
Settlement  House,  and  where  the  houses  of  ill- 
fame  were  blighting  the  lives  of  young  men 
and  women  as  well  as  little  children.  The 
neighborhood  responded  so  quickly  to  the  spir 
it  of  neighborliness  that  in  two  months'  time 
one  hundred  Sunday  school  pupils  were  packed 
into  a  room  sixteen  by  eighteen  feet  and  class 
es  were  being  conducted  in  every  room  in  the 
house.  The  hallway  was  converted  into  a  din 
ing  room,  and  because  of  its  publicity  some  of 
the  community  were  usually  present  at  morn 
ing  prayers.  The  experience  was  one  of  liv 
ing  ivith  the  community  rather  than  in  it,  but 
it  proved  to  be  another  demonstration  of  the 
power  of  personal  contact. 

About  the  same  time  Miss  Mattie  Wright 
was  asked  to  come  to  St.  Louis  to  direct  the 
work  known  as  the  Sloan  Mission. 


She  wrote,  "I  will  come  at  once,"  and  added  in  her 
characteristic  way :  "Look  for  a  little  old  maid  in  a 
brown  suit,  carrying  a  straw  suitcase."  Because  of 
her  almost  insignificant  physical  appearance,  the  women 
of  the  City  Mission  Board,  upon  first  meeting  her, 
doubted  her  ability  for  the  task  undertaken,  but  these 
doubts  were  quickly  dispelled.  She  had  a  most  in 
domitable  spirit.  No  difficulties  were  too  great  for  her 
to  overcome.  She  started  the  work  at  old  Sloan  Mis 
sion  in  very  small  quarters  and  with  no  equipment. 
When  she  took  charge,  a  policeman  stood  at  the  door 
to  prevent  the  rough  boys  of  the  neighborhood  from 
breaking  up  the  services  by  throwing  brickbats  into 
the  room.  For  the  sake  of  privacy,  a  screen  stood 
inside  the  door,  but  Miss  Wright  moved  it  and  told 
the  policeman  she  would  take  his  place.  She  met  the 
boys  with  a  smile  and  a  pleasant  word  and  so  shamed 
them  by  her  kindly  spirit  that  they  became  her  best 
friends  and  supporters. 

Miss  Wright  gave  herself  the  name  of  "general 
utility  deaconess,"  for  she  did  everything  from  con 
ducting  Church  services  to  playing  the  part  of  janitor 
when  that  individual  failed  to  appear.  Kingdom  House 
would  not  be  where  it  is  to-day  had  it  not  been  piloted 
through  days  of  storm  and  stress  by  this  brave  spirit 
who,  in  the  face  of  overwhelming  obstacles,  wrested 
achievement  out  of  seeming  impossibilities.  (From 
leaflet  by  Mrs.  C.  M.  Hawkins.) 

In  1905  the  old  Sloan  Mission  house  was 
sold  and  the  work  moved  a  block  away  to  a 
larger  and  better  building.  The  name  was  at 
that  time  changed  to  Kingdom  House. 



In  1902  the  Woman's  Board  of  Home  Mis 
sions  sent  a  memorial  to  the  General  Confer 
ence  asking  for  the  establishment  of  the  office 
of  deaconess.  The  memorial  was  granted, 
and  the  following  year  the  first  five  deacon 
esses — Miss  Mattie  Wright,  Miss  Amy  Rice, 
Miss  Elizabeth  Davis,  Miss  Annie  Heath,  and 
Miss  Arabel  Weigle — were  consecrated.  The 
establishment  of  the  deaconess  office  and  the 
opening  of  settlements  gave  a  new  impetus  to 
the  work  in  the  cities.  In  1904  Mrs.  Mac- 
Donell  reported  seven  settlements,  twenty- 
nine  salaried  workers,  and  forty-six  volunteer 

The  success  came,  however,  in  the  face  of 
stanch  opposition.  Many  of  the  preachers 
opposed  the  settlement,  not  considering  its 
work  to  be  religious.  In  order  to  overcome 
opposition  to  the  same  forms  of  service  con 
ducted  by  the  founder  of  Methodism  in  the 
name  of  religion,  the  Woman's  Board  of 
Home  Missions,  at  its  annual  meeting  in  1907, 
decided  to  give  the  name  Wesley  House  to 
the  settlements  under  its  direction.  There  was 
much  in  the  name,  for  it  overcame  prejudice 
and  gave  to  the  work  a  new  popularity. 



One  of  the  great  tasks  accomplished  through 
the  city  mission  enterprise  has  been  that  of 
the  Christian  Americanization  of  the  foreign- 
born.  In  numbers  of  cities  vast  communities 
of  foreign-born  people  have  been  Christian 
ized  and  Americanized. 

In  1907  a  site  was  selected  in  New  Orleans 
below  Canal.  Street  in  a  district  where  it  was 
said  that  more  nationalities  were  represented 
than  in  any  other  city  in  the  country.  Here 
a  work  was  jointly  begun  by  the  Woman's 
Board  of  Home  Missions,  the  General  Board 
of  Missions,  the  Board  of  Church  Extension, 
and  the  local  City  Mission  Board.  The  insti 
tution  was  given  the  name  of  St.  Mark's  Hall. 

Miss  Margaret  Ragland  was  the  first  Head 
Resident.  Within  three  years  after  the  estab 
lishment  of  the  work,  over  forty  Italians  were 
added  to  the  membership  of  Second  Street 
Methodist  Church.  This  led  to  the  organiza 
tion  of  an  Italian  Church,  which  for  seven 
years  worshiped  in  the  parlors  of  St.  Mark's. 
In  1918  a  small  church  house  was  erected  for 
the  congregation.  The  clinic,  which  was  for 
a  number  of  years  conducted  by  Miss  Kate 


Wilson  (later  a  missionary  to  Africa)  was  one 
of  the  most  successful  activities. 

Miss  Martha  Nutt,  a  returned  missionary 
from  Mexico  succeeded  Miss  Ragland  as  Head 
Resident.  Miss  Nutt  was  a  great  evangelistic 
force  in  the  community  and  helped  in  unify 
ing  the  philanthropic  organizations  of  the  city. 
It  was  also  through  her  cooperative  efforts 
that  commercialized  vice  was  greatly  limited 
and  forces  set  to  work  which  tended  to  the 
breaking  up  of  the  legalized  districts. 

At  Birmingham,  Ala.,  the  Ensley  Com 
munity  House  was  established  in  1913  to  serve 
a  large  community  of  Italians  working  for 
the  Tennessee  Coal,  Iron  &  Railroad  Com 
pany.  Miss  Dollie  Crim,  as  Head  Resident, 
was  a  great  organizing  force  in  the  communi 
ty  from  its  beginning  and  during  the  World 
War  was  particularly  successful  in  rallying 
her  community  for  patriotic  service. 

At  Forth  Worth,  Tex.,  a  Wesley  House  was 
located  in  a  packing  house  district,  where 
there  lived  Greeks,  Mexicans,  Bohemians,  and 
Russians.  The  Head  Resident,  Deaconess 
Eugenia  Smith,  with  her  genius  for  winning 
people,  brought  into  existence  a  regularly  or 
ganized  Church  among  the  Mexicans.  In  one 
year  two  hundred  children  were  enrolled  in 


the  Sunday  school  and  twenty-five  adults 
joined  the  Church. 

In  1912  a  Wesley  House  was  opened  in  a 
Mexican  district  in  San  Antonio,  Tex.  Dea 
coness  Almeda  Hewitt  and  Deaconess  Ella 
Bowden  were  the  pioneers  who  made  possible 
this  beginning.  The  difficulties  encountered 
by  them  were  not  so  much  those  involved  in 
the  task  of  winning  the  Mexicans  as  in  the 
overcoming  of  racial  prejudice  in  the  Amer 
ican  Churches.  Within  a  year  after  the  open 
ing  of  the  house  it  was  too  small  to  accommo 
date  the  work.  To  meet  this  great  growing 
opportunity  to  win  Mexico  on  this  side  of  the 
Rio  Grande,  a  joint  work  was  established  be 
tween  the  local  City  Board  and  the  Woman's 
Missionary  Council.  A  new  house  was  erected 
in  1917-  The  Wesley  House  here  became  a 
great  factor  in  helping  to  conserve  and 
strengthen  the  neighborhood  Mexican  Church. 

In  1904  Major  Toberman,  of  Los  Angeles, 
gave  to  the  Woman's  Board  of  Home  Mis 
sions  $10,000  for  the  building  of  a  hospital 
and  $20,000,  the  interest  on  which  was  to  be 
used  for  nursing  the  "Lord's  sick  poor."  In 
1913  work  was  developed  in  a  densely  popu 
lated  Mexican  district  in  a  different  section 
of  the  city.  Later,  the  Homer  Toberman  Dea- 


coness  Hospital  was  sold  with  the  purpose 
of  reinvesting  the  money  in  the  Homer  Tober- 
man  Clinic  and  Settlement  that  had  been 
opened  in  this  Mexican  district.  The  work 
of  building  was  delayed,  and  in  1920  the  clin 
ic  and  a  night  school  were  still  being  con 
ducted  in  a  small  and  poorly  equipped  build 
ing.  However,  over  two  thousand  patients 
were  being  treated  annually,  and  out  of  the 
social  ministry  of  the  deaconesses  a  Mexican 
Church  had  been  organized. 

Within  a  few  years  after  the  opening  of 
the  work  in  Dallas,  Tex.,  in  1903,  the  char 
acter  of  the  community  had  so  changed  that 
the  settlement  was  moved  to  a  cotton  mill  dis 
trict.  The  work,  however,  was  continued  in 
connection  with  a  small  chapel  which  had 
been  taken  over  from  the  Northern  Method 
ists.  It  was  later  named  Wesley  Chapel. 
For  a  number  of  years  there  was  such  a 
sway  of  evil  that  little  could  be  accomplished. 
In  1915,  however,  Deaconess  Rhoda  Dragoo 
writes : 

On  November  3,  1913,  when  the  red-light  district 
was  abolished,  Wesley  Chapel  entered  upon  a  new 
period  of  its  existence.  New  forms  of  social  service 
were  organized  to  meet  the  needs  of  the  changing  popu 
lation.  The  kindergarten  was  the  first  social  feature 
introduced,  and  it  was  a  joy  to  be  able  to  gather  the 


little  tots  into  the  chapel  and  know  that  the  blighting 
influence  of  vice  had  been  removed  from  their  lives  so 
far  as  the  law  could  do  it.  The  population  is  almost 
entirely  foreign.  Mexicans  and  Russian  Jews  predomi 
nate.  Only  through  the  kindergarten  and  sewing  school 
are  we  able  to  touch  Jewish  life.  Jewish  fathers  and 
mothers  are  manifesting  a  keen  interest  in  this  work. 
The  night  school  was  organized  for  Mexicans  only. 
Men  and  women  are  eager  to  learn  English.  The  con 
dition  of  the  Mexican  is  pitiful ;  but  Wesley  Chapel  is 
making  the  most  of  his  extremity,  and  he  is  being  given 
a  vision  of  Christian  fellowship. 

In  1907  a  mission  was  enterprised  at  Biloxi, 
Miss.,  in  a  district  where  five  large  oyster 
canning  factories  were  giving  employment  to 
several  thousand  people.  Concerning  the 
character  of  this  community,  the  first  mission 
ary,  Miss  Minnie  Boykin,  says  in  her  report 
of  1908: 

Besides  the  resident  population,  there  is  a  large  pop 
ulation  of  people  shipped  here  every  year  to  work  in 
the  canning  factories.  These  come  in  October  and  re 
turn  in  May,  when  the  oyster  season  is  over.  They  are 
shipped  from  Baltimore  and  other  Northern  cities  in 
box  cars  like  cattle  and  are  treated  not  much  better 
when  they  get  here.  Belonging  to  each  factory  are  two 
or  more  long  shedlike  buildings  two  or  three  hundred 
feet  long  cut  up  into  small  rooms,  two  rooms  being 
allowed  for  a  family,  regardless  of  the  size.  Most  of 
the  men  work  on  boats  and  the  women  and  children 
in  factories.  Children  from  five  years  old  and  up  work. 
When  oysters  and  shrimps  are  plentiful,  they  are  re- 


quired  to  begin  work  in  the  factory  at  three  o'clock 
in  the  morning,  and  in  shrimp  season  they  work  late 
at  night  and  often  part  of  Sunday.  The  acid  in  the 
shrimp  eats  up  the  hands  and  fingers.  I  have  seen 
little  children  with  their  hands  swollen  stiff,  the  skin 
all  peeled  off  and  bleeding.  All  day  they  must  stand 
with  their  hands  in  this  eating  acid,  their  feet  on  the 
cold,  wet  floor. 

The  work  was  opened  in  a  small  cottage 
and  without  local  support.  The  Mississippi 
Conference  Society  afterwards  purchased  a 
house  which  they  renovated  to  suit  the  needs 
of  the  settlement.  They  also  supplemented 
the  appropriation  of  the  Council  for  current 


The  reports  show  that  by  the  year  1914 
missions  were  being  conducted  among  foreign 
people  in  the  mine  fields  of  Oklahoma,  Texas, 
Missouri,  and  West  Virginia.  Concerning  the 
field  at  Hartshorne,  Okla.,  Deaconess  Willena 
Henry  writes: 

This  work  is  supported  by  the  East  Oklahoma 
Woman's  Missionary  Conference  Society  and  embraces 
a  territory  about  fifteen  miles  long  and  two  or  three 
miles  wide,  with  more  than  twenty  nationalities  among 
the  six  thousand  foreigners.  In  or  near  the  seven 
towns  in  this  territory  are  ten  or  twelve  coal  mines, 
giving  employment  for  most  of  the  foreigners.  These 


people  are  untouched  by  any  religious  influence  except 
the  Catholic  Church,  Roman  and  Russian,  and  many 
of  them  are  drifting  away  from  these. 

The  mission  in  the  lead  belt  of  Missouri 
was  carried  on  for  seven  years  through  the  ef 
forts  of  the  St.  Louis  Conference  Society. 
The  interesting  possibilities  found  there  are 
shown  in  the  following  from  Deaconess  Laura 
Proctor  in  her  1916  report: 

I  arrived  on  June  2.  A  few  days  later,  in  company 
with  Miss  Wike,  a  tour  of  the  foreign  villages  was  be 
gun.  Each  day  a  new  village  was  entered  and  a  new 
nationality  visited.  One  day  it  was  an  Italian  village, 
the  next  a  Polish,  another  an  Austrian  or  a  Russian. 
When  the  itinerancy  had  been  made  and  the  ten  villages 
visited,  I  felt  as  though  I  had  been  peering  into  a 
kaleidoscope  which  showed  about  thirteen  different 
nationalities  in  highly  colored  costumes.  These  quaint 
villages,  with  the  people  in  native  costumes  and  speak 
ing  their  native  tongues,  were  very  interesting  at  first. 
Yet  in  an  instant  back  of  this  could  be  seen  the  great 
need  of  religious  instruction  and  social  service.  The 
harvest  is  truly  white  and  the  laborers  few  in  compari 
son  with  the  great  host  of  foreigners  found  here. 

One  year  later  a  cyclone  demolished  the 
Wesley  House.  To  complete  the  tragedy  six 
weeks  afterwards  strange  men  came  into  the 
lead  belt  and  incited  the  American  employees  to 
rioting.  The  foreign  men  were  stoned  and 
driven  from  their  work  and  their  wives  and 


children  thrust  from  their  homes.  Finally,  at 
the  point  of  a  gun,  they  were  loaded  into  cars 
and  shipped  to  St.  Louis.  Because  of  these 
dreadful  events,  incident  to  World  War  con 
ditions,  it  became  necessary  to  close  the  work. 

The  work  in  the  coal  fields  at  Thurber, 
Tex.,  was  opened  in  1908  by  the  Central  Tex 
as  Conference  Society.  Marston  Hall,  the  so 
cial  and  religious  center,  through  the  ministry 
of  the  workers  appointed  by  the  Council, 
served  a  population  of  6,500  Americans,  Ital 
ians,  Mexicans,  and  Poles. 

In  1914  a  mission  was  begun  in  the  West 
Virginia  coal  mines  by  the  Holston  Confer 
ence  Society.  It  was  soon  extended  into  a 
number  of  centers,  serving  Americans,  Hun 
garians,  Italians,  Syrians,  Slavs,  Poles,  and 


Soon  after  coming  into  office,  Mrs.  Har 
grove,  the  General  Secretary,  made  a  visit  to 
the  West  and  became  greatly  aroused  over  the 
needs  of  Oriental  people  on  the  Pacific  Coast. 
It  was,  therefore,  largely  through  her  influ 
ence  that  the  work  was  begun  in  1897.  Miss 
Mary  Helm,  editor  of  Our  Homes,  visiting 
the  coast  mission,  gained  such  a  thorough 



knowledge  of  conditions  among  the  Orientals 
that  she  was  able  to  make  a  strong  appeal  in 
their  behalf.  While  there  she  rented  suitable 
buildings  and  put  competent  workers  in 
charge.  The  summer  following  two  hundred 
and  seven  Chinese  and  Japanese  were  en 
rolled  in  the  schools,  and  eleven  had  joined 
the  Church. 

In  1903  Dr.  C.  F.  Reid  (returned  mission 
ary  from  Korea)  was  made  Superintendent 
of  the  Pacific  Coast  work.  In  November  of 
that  same  year  our  first  Japanese  Church  was 
organized  in  Alameda,  Cal.,  a  second  in  San 
Francisco,  while  a  little  later  a  third  was  or 
ganized  in  Oakland.  Still  later,  work  was 
opened  in  Dinuba,  Sacramento,  and  Isleton. 
At  each  of  these  points  a  native  pastor  was 
put  in  charge  and  regular  Church  activities 
were  carried  on.  At  Alameda  regular  forms 
of  settlement  work  were  opened,  and,  at  the  re 
quest  of  the  Japanese  themselves,  the  institu 
tion  was  called  Mary  Helm  Hall. 

After  the  earthquake  in  1906,  the  four  mis 
sion  boards  that  were  at  work  on  the  coast 
agreed  upon  a  division  of  territory  and  the 
Korean  work  fell  to  the  Methodist  Episcopal 
Church,  South.  The  Korean  Church  at  San 
Francisco  was  located  in  a  rented  house  on 


Bush  Street.  Rev.  Ju  Sam  Ryang,  a  young 
Korean,  had  just  come  to  this  country  for  the 
purpose  of  securing  a  university  education. 
Dr.  Reid  induced  him  to  postpone  college  work 
until  he  had  established  the  new  Church  for 
Koreans.  With  alertness  of  mind,  depth  of 
spiritual  life,  and  a  gift  for  organization  Mr. 
Ryang  plunged  into  this  undertaking.  Three 
years  he  remained  as  pastor,  setting  a  standard 
for  our  Korean  missions.  He  also  edited  a 
Korean  magazine.  After  the  lapse  of  a  year's 
time,  the  mission  secured  as  pastor  the  Rev. 
David  Lee,  a  graduate  of  the  University  of 
California.  The  Korean  missions  grew  under 
his  ministry  until,  in  1918,  regular  services 
were  being  held  at  the  following  'appoint 
ments:  San  Francisco,  Sacramento,  Manteca, 
Stockton,  Oakland,  Marysville,  Willow,  Max 
well,  and  Tracy  and  occasional  meetings  in 
about  six  other  camps  in  the  rice  fields  where 
there  were  a  number  of  Korean  laborers. 

In  1910  Mr.  and  Mrs.  William  Acton  suc 
ceeded  Dr.  Reid  as  Superintendents  of  the 
coast  mission.  Under  their  supervision  there 
was  great  growth  and  progress.  The  ac 
tivities  of  Mary  Helm  Hall  were  multiplied 
and  seven  additional  centers  of  work  estab 
lished.  In  the  new  centers  the  converts  from 


the  older  mission  for  the  most  part  became 
the  missionaries  in  charge. 


In  1910  the  Board  of  Missions  appointed  a 
missionary  to  serve  among  the  French  people 
who  lived  in  the  territory  of  the  sugar  planta 
tions.  It  was  found  that  in  this  region  there 
were  eighty  miles  of  houses  so  close  together 
that  a  message  could  be  sent  from  one  end 
to  the  other  merely  by  speaking  from  house 
to  house.  Very  little  English  was  known  and 
the  people  lived  shut  away  from  the  reach  of 
civilization.  They  were,  of  course,  largely 
Roman  Catholic. 

Two  years  after  the  missionary  began  work 
he  asked  for  the  assistance  of  a  deaconess.  In 
response  to  this  request,  Miss  Eliza  lies,  a 
Louisianian  by  birth,  was  appointed  to  this 
field  and  gave  unstinted  service  for  two  years. 
The  pastor  and  deaconess,  working  together, 
organized  Churches  at  a  number  of  appoint 
ments.  In  a  short  time  Miss  Kate  Walker 
was  added  to  the  working  force.  For  three 
years  Miss  Walker  conducted  clubs,  classes, 
missionary  societies,  and  other  work  at  the 
Houma  Church.  In  the  fall  of  1917  Miss 
Ella  Hooper  and  Mrs.  Laura  White  were  ap- 


pointed  to  this  interesting  field.  Their  head 
quarters  were  located  at  Houma  because  of  its 
accessibility  to  all  points  in  the  Terre  Bonne 
and  La  Fourche  Parishes.  They  established 
a  home  at  Houma  and  divided  the  field  be 
tween  them.  An  automobile  was  furnished 
these  workers  by  the  Council,  so  that  they  were 
able  to  make  more  accessible  their  extended 


Because  of  the  large  number  of  cotton  mill 
people  in  the  South  and  their  appalling  need, 
Wesley  Houses  were  opened  in  many  mill 
communities  in  rapid  succession.  Atlanta, 
Ga.,  was  the  first.  Then  followed  Augusta, 
Ga. ;  Birmingham,  Ala. ;  Knoxville,  Tenn. ; 
Meridian,  Miss. ;  Spartanburg,  S.  C. ;  Winston- 
Salem,  N.  C. ;  Orangeburg,  S.  C. ;  Greenwood, 
S.  C. ;  Macon,  Ga. ;  Danville,  Va. ;  and  Griffin, 

The  Wesley  Houses  served  these  communi 
ties  through  day  nurseries  for  children  of 
working  mothers,  night  schools  for  those  who 
were  deprived  of  the  privilege  of  the  public 
school,  kindergartens  for  the  little  ones,  and 
industrial  classes  for  boys  and  girls.  They 
also  became  religious  and  social  centers  for 


those  whose  lives  would  otherwise  have  been 
empty  and  impoverished. 


In  Kansas  City,  Mo.,  St.  Louis,  Mo.,  St. 
Joseph,  Mo.,  Louisville,  Ky.,  Memphis,  Tenn., 
Mobile,  Ala.,  Montgomery,  Ala.,  Murfrees- 
boro,  Tenn.,  Richmond,  Va.,  and  San  Fran 
cisco,  Cal.,  City  Mission  Boards  were  organ 
ized  and  settlements  established  to  serve  in  in 
dustrial  centers  of  mixed  population. 


In  1903  Miss  Mabel  Ho  well  was  added  to 
the  force  of  teachers  in  the  Scarritt  Bible  and 
Training  School  as  professor  of  sociology. 
It  immediately  became  apparent  that  there 
must  be  developed  a  center  of  work  where 
students  might  secure  practical  training.  As 
a  result  of  Miss  Howell's  efforts,  the  forces 
of  the  mission  Church  and  the  City  Mission 
Board  wrere  brought  together.  The  city  at 
large  became  interested  in  the  enterprise,  and 
within  a  short  time  an  institutional  church 
was  erected.  Much  credit  is  due  the  Rev.  M. 
Charles  Moore  for  the  successful  establish 
ment  of  this  the  first  Institutional  Church.  It 


was  a  triumph  over  active  opposition  on  the 
part  of  numbers  of  Church  leaders. 

The  extent  of  the  influence  of  this  institu 
tion  is  shown  in  its  by-products.  The  work  of 
its  deaconesses  among  the  children  of  the 
Juvenile  Court  revealed  the  need  of  a  receiv 
ing  home  where  they  might  be  kept  in  comfort 
and  safety  until  permanently  placed  in  some 
institution  or  returned  to  their  parents.  Mrs. 
T.  B.  Spofford  deeded  a  splendid  property  to 
the  City  Board  of  Kansas  City  and  thus  en 
abled  it  to  extend  its  work  in  the  support  of  a 
receiving  home  named  for  its  donor.  The 
Boys'  Hotel  Association  grew  to  be  an  institu 
tion  because  of  the  effort  of  these  same  women 
to  care  for  the  small  boy  of  the  street.  The 
Octavia  Hill  Association,  providing  clean, 
wholesome  apartments  at  nominal  prices  for 
working  women,  was  also  a  product  of  the 
effort  of  the  Methodist  women  of  Kansas 


The  Woman's  Missionary  Council  held  its 
first  meeting  in  St.  Louis.  At  this  time  Miss 
Mary  DeBardeleben  presented  herself  as  a 
candidate  for  Negro  work.  A  number  of 
years  before  God  had  spoken  to  this  young 
woman  on  one  Christmas  eve  making  her  un- 


derstand  that  she  was  unworthy  of  appoint 
ment  to  a  foreign  field  unless  she  were  will 
ing  to  minister  to  the  Negroes  at  her  own 
door.  The  surrender  was  made,  but  no  en 
couragement  came  to  her  that  she  might  serve 
the  people  to  whom  she  was  called  until  she 
went  to  the  Methodist  Training  School  at 
Nashville,  Tenn.,  to  prepare  for  work  in  Ja 
pan.  There  she  found  those  upon  whom  God 
was  laying  the  same  burden.  The  result  of  it 
all  was  that  at  an  afternoon  session  of  the 
St.  Louis  meeting  in  1911  she  came  before  the 
Council;  and  the  members,  deeply  touched, 
pledged  her  in  that  sacred  hour  that  they  would 
"hold  the  ropes"  while  she,  as  their  first  repre 
sentative,  entered  upon  this  most  needy  mis 
sion  field  of  the  South.  She  was  sent  to  Au 
gusta  Ga.,  where  in  1912  she  opened  in  an 
abandoned  near-beer  establishment  the  Coun 
cil's  first  Christian  settlement  for  Negroes. 
The  institution  during  the  first  months  of  its 
history  went  by  the  name  of  Galloway  Hall,  in 
honor  of  Bishop  Galloway,  who  never  ceased 
to  speak  in  behalf  of  the  Negroes.  The  Coun 
cil  decided  at  its  meeting  in  1913  that  settle 
ments  conducted  for  Negroes  should  be  called 
Bethlehem  Houses. 

The  conviction  of  the  members  of  the  Meth- 


odist  Training  School  during  these  years  \vas 
taking  form  and  becoming  tangible.  Very 
early  in  its  history  Mrs.  Sallie  Hill  Sawyer, 
a  godly  member  of  Capers  Chapel  (the  largest 
Colored  Methodist  Episcopal  Church  in  Nash 
ville,  Tenn.),  came  to  a  member  of  the  faculty 
asking  for  help  in  her  Church.  Because  of 
her  oft-repeated  appeals  and  because  of  the 
dire  need  of  a  neighboring  Negro  community, 
definite  organized  work  was  begun  by  the 
Training  School  in  the  year  1913  in  the  base 
ment  of  a  colored  Presbyterian  Church.  For 
the  first  year  the  funds  were  furnished  and 
the  work  was  done  by  the  teachers  and  stu 
dents.  The  following  year  an  appropriation 
was  made  by  the  Woman's  Missionary  Coun 
cil,  a  house  was  rented,  and  the  patient  pray 
ing  of  "Mother  Sawyer"  (so  called  by  the  col 
ored  people)  was  rewarded.  She  herself 
was  the  first  resident  settlement  worker  ever 
employed  for  the  Bethlehem  House  work. 
She  remained  the  House  Mother  of  the  Nash 
ville  Bethlehem  House  until  the  time  of  her 
death,  in  1918. 

The  work  at  this  point  was  distinctive,  in 
that  it  furnished  a  training  center  for  the  So 
cial  Science  Department  of  Fisk  University, 
one  of  the  leading  Negro  universities  of  the 


South.  The  Bethlehem  House  touched  the  en 
tire  city  in  its  influence  and  set  an  example  of 
racial  cooperation  for  the  South.  Miss  Estelle 
Haskin  represented  the  Council  as  the  super 
visor  of  this  work  and  was  succeeded  by  Miss 
Rosa  Breeden  in  1918  who  was  at  that  time  ap 
pointed  supervisor. 


The  workers  and  the  City  Board  members 
soon  began  to  discover  that  the  low  wage  and 
the  cheap  boarding  house  constituted  the  great 
est  menace  to  the  life  and  character  of  the 
working  woman.  As  a  consequence  there  was 
developed  a  new  form  of  service  in  the  estab 
lishment  of  the  cooperative  home  for  working 

At  Waco,  Tex.,  a  City  Board  was  organ 
ized  in  1902.  Soon  afterwards  they  donated 
property  to  the  Woman's  Home  Mission  So 
ciety  for  a  deaconess  home  and  training  school. 
An  effort  to  use  the  building  for  settlement 
work  was  unsuccessful  because  the  location 
was  not  suitable.  However,  through  the  inter 
est  of  Mrs.  Rebecca  Sparks  and  a  local  Meth 
odist  preacher  the  house  was  opened  to  a  half 
dozen  country  girls  for  board,  and  in  1909  the 
property  was  returned  to  the  local  City  Board, 


the  house  was  enlarged,  and  the  institution  be 
came  known  as  the  Rebecca  Sparks  Coopera 
tive  Home  for  Working  Women. 

In  1908  Miss  -Mattie  Wright  was  sent  to 
Houston,  Tex.,  to  open  settlement  work  among 
foreign-born  people  segregated  near  the  rail 
road  centers.  Within  a  few  days  she  found  a 
young  girl  from  the  country  who  had  come  to 
Houston  to  make  her  way  in  the  business 
world.  She  took  this  homeless  young  woman 
to  the  Settlement  Home,  and  before  she  real 
ized  it  she  had  gathered  twelve  girls  under  its 
roof.  The  need  for  an  institution  of  this  type 
and  the  system  and  dispatch  demonstrated  by 
Miss  Wright  appealed  to  the  business  men  of 
Houston.  Within  four  years  a  handsome 
three-story  brick  building,  large  enough  to 
accommodate  seventy-five  persons,  was  erected 
and  donated  to  the  Houston  District  for  Meth 
odist  women  to  use  as  a  home  for  working 
girls.  The  stories  of  the  lives  saved  through 
this  effort  proved  the  wisdom  of  Miss  Wright 
in  her  pioneer  work  at  Houston. 

Lexington,  Ky.,  soon  established  a  similar 
home,  which,  under  the  guidance  of  Miss  El 
liott,  came  to  be  a  saving  center  in  a  complex 
city  life. 

Under  the  leadership  of  Mrs.  Ross  With- 


erspoon,  at  Jackson,  Tenn.,  another  home  came 
into  existence,  but  soon  passed  from  the  Meth 
odist  Church  to  an  interdenominational  enter 

At  Corinth,  Miss.,  a  community  small  nu 
merically  but  important  from  the  standpoint 
of  the  young  country  girl,  a  Cooperative  Home 
was  established  by  the  North  Mississippi  Con 
ference  Society  under  the  guidance  of  Deacon 
ess  Mary  Daniel.  This  home  soon  came  to  be 
one  of  the  recognized  social  centers  of  Cor 

The  City  Board  at  Savannah,  Ga.,  estab 
lished  a  plant  known  as  the  Robert  Mclntyre 

In  1914,  at  San  Francisco,  Cal.,  through 
the  liberality  of  Mrs.  L.  H.  Glide,  the  Mary 
Elizabeth  Inn  was  erected  and  deeded  to  the 
Board  of  Missions  for  the  use  of  the  Woman's 
Missionary  Council.  This  building  was  made 
to  accommodate  more  than  one  hundred  and 
eight  persons,  and  during  one  year  more  than 
eight  hundred  women  were  turned  away  for 
lack  of  room. 


In  1907,  when  the  tide  of  European  immi 
grants  began  to  come  to  the  South,  Port  Gal- 



veston  furnished  the  largest  and  most  attrac 
tive  entry.  At  that  time  there  were  no  agen 
cies  for  the  help  of  these  immigrants,  save  a 
magnificent  plant  conducted  by  New  York 
Jews  for  Jewish  immigrants  only.  Jointly 
with  the  General  Board  of  Missions  the  Wom 
an's  Board  of  Home  Missions  opened  a  home 
for  immigrants.  For  four  years  this  center 
served  as  a  blessing  to  these  people  who  could 
speak  no  English  and  were  thereby  victims  of 
many  impositions.  Thousands  of  people  were 
met  by  the  missionaries  in  charge  and  directed 
to  centers  where  work  was  found  for  them. 
Each  one  was  given  a  chance  to  know  some 
thing  of  the  better  things  of  our  American 
civilization.  From  all  parts  of  the  United 
States  letters  of  gratitude  returned  to  the  mis 
sionary  in  charge.  In  1912  the  government 
erected  an  immigrant  home  on  Pelican  Island, 
so  there  was  no  longer  need  for  our  institution. 
Despite  the  fact  that  the  government  cared 
for  these  foreigners  in  a  most  efficient  man 
ner,  the  Woman's  Missionary  Council  never 
theless  found  it  necessary  to  retain  a  port  mis 
sionary  at  Galveston. 

In  1907  there  was  also  established  a  Sea 
man's  Rest  at  Gulfport,  Miss.,  with  the  Rev. 
W.  D.  Griffin  in  charge.  It  was  a  rest  home, 


a  social  center,  and  a  place  where  religious 
services  were  conducted  for  the  men  of  the 
sea.  In  1917,  when  the  Great  War  was  de 
clared,  fewer  sailors  came  to  this  country,  not 
enough  to  warrant  the  continuance  of  the  in 
stitution.  A  great  work  was  done,  however, 
in  the  ten  years  that  this  mission  was  in  opera 
tion,  and  the  Superintendent  had  assurances 
from  all  parts  of  the  country  that  the  Sail 
ors'  Rest  had  filled  a  great  need. 



"0  tender  Shepherd,  climbing  rugged  mountains 

And  crossing  waters  deep, 
How  long  wouldst  thou  be  willing  to  go  homeless 

To  find  a  straying  sheep? 
'I  count  no  time,'  the  Shepherd  gently  answered, 

'As  thou  dost  count  and  bind 
The  weeks  in  months,  the  months  in  years ; 

My  counting  is  just  until  I  find. 
And  that  would  be  the  limit  of  my  journey — 

I'd  cross  the  waters  deep 
And  climb  the  hillsides  with  unfailing  patience 

Until  I  find  my  sheep.' " 



THE  Scarritt  Bible  and  Training  School,  lo 
cated  at  Kansas.  City,  Mo.,  has  a  record  of 
twenty-eight  years  of  splendid  and  efficient 
service.  It  has  been  the  life  expression  of  two 
women:  Miss  Belle  H.  Bennett,  out  of  whose 
prayer-thought  it  became  a  reality,  and  Miss 
Maria  Layng  Gibson,  who  for  o'ver  twenty- 
five  years  molded  and  directed  its  life  into  a 
world-wide  service. 


The  Woman's  Board  was  sending  to  for 
eign  fields  women  who  were  untried  and  un 
trained  or  those  who  had  been  obliged  to  se 
cure  their  training  in  another  Church.  That 
our  Church  was  not  meeting  its  obligation  to 
its  ambassadors  became  to  Miss  Bennett  a  bur 
den  from  which  she  could  not  escape.  How  to 
meet  their  need  was  her  one  burning  thought 
by  day  and  by  night,  and  God  was  with  her 
in  such  closeness  and  power  that  the  establish- 



ment  of  a  training  school  was  a  divine  call  to 
which  she  responded  with  the  dedication  of 
herself  to  its  accomplishment. 

In  the  year  1889  the  Woman's  Board  of 
Foreign  Missions  met  in  Little  Rock,  Ark., 
and  at  the  earnest  solicitation  of  Mrs.  S.  C. 
Trueheart,  Miss  Bennett  attended  for  the  pur 
pose  of  presenting  to  the  women  her  thought 
of  a  missionary  training  school.  She  was  just 
recovering  from  a  long  illness,  and  in  speak 
ing  of  the  incidents  of  this  meeting  she  says: 

I  was  too  sick  and  too  frightened  to  stand  upon  my 
feet  when  I  was  called  to  speak.  The  President,  Mrs. 
Hayes,  seeing  my  condition,  said :  "Come  right  here, 
Miss  Bennett,  sit  down  in  this  chair  and  talk  it  over 
with  us."  I  did  so,  standing  when  I  became  excited. 
I  poured  out  the  whole  thought  of  my  heart  as  I  talked 
with  them  about  the  splendid  training  that  was~~given 
to  doctors  and  lawyers  and  professional  men  of  all 
kinds.  "And  yet,"  I  said,  "we  are  trying  to  send  out 
young  men  and  young  women  to  the  great  dark  lands 
to  teach  a  new  religion  that  they  themselves  know  little 
about."  When  I  finished,  a  few  questions  were  asked, 
and  a  prayer  was  offered  by  Mrs.  Nathan  Scarritt,  of 
Kansas  City,  asking  God  to  make  the  school  a  reality. 

Although  the  difficulties  involved  in  under 
taking  a  task  necessitating  so  large  an  expendi 
ture  of  money  seemed  almost  insurmountable, 
yet  so  strong  was  the  impression  of  God's 


call  to  this  task  that  the  following  resolutions 
were  passed: 

Resolved,  That  the  Board  has  heard  Miss  Bennett's 
address  with  pleasure  and,  recognizing  the  great  im 
portance  of  its  subject,  does  hereby  appoint  her  as 
agent  of  the  Woman's  Board  of  Foreign  Missions  of 
the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  South,  to  fully  investi 
gate  the  matter  of  a  training  school  for  missionaries 
and  does  empower  her  to  represent  its  claims  through 
out  the  Church,  to  enlist  the  sympathy  and  aid  of  the 
workers,  and  to  collect  funds,  reporting  results  to  the 

Resolved,  That  she  be  directed  also  to  present  this 
matter  to  other  Mission  Boards  and  to  ask  their  in 
terest  and  patronage  with  the  view  that  their  mis 
sionaries  may  have  the  benefit  of  the  advantages  thus 

Resolved,  That  Miss  Bennett  be  furnished  by  this 
Board  with  all  necessary  credentials  to  show  that  she 
is  its  duly  appointed  agent. 

Upon  the  unanimous  passage  of  these  reso 
lutions  Miss  Bennett  \vas  so  overwhelmed  at 
the  manner  in  which  God  was  answering  her 
own  prayers  that  she  immediately  arose,  say 
ing:  "But,  ladies,  I  do  not  know  how  to  do  it, 
I  do  not  know  the  Church,  I  do  not  as  much 
as  know  how  to  begin."  Even  as  she  protest 
ed,  however,  there  came  to  her  with  over 
whelming  power  the  remembrance  of  her  vow 
to  God,  and  as  the  women  pledged  themselves 
to  stand  behind  her  with  their  prayers  and  ef- 


forts  she  consented  to  undertake  the  work. 
The  promise,  "Commit  thy  works  unto  the 
Lord,  and  thy  thoughts  shall  be  established," 
became  her  staying  power  and  her  strength 
and  the  foundation  on  which  the  Scarritt  Bi 
ble  and  Training  School  was  built. 

It  was  decided  that  all  subscriptions  should 
be  secured  from  individuals  and  that  the  aux 
iliaries  should  not  be  taxed.  At  that  time 
members  of  the  Board  pledged  as  follows: 
Mrs.  Adam  Hendrix,  $100;  Mrs.  E.  C.  Dow- 
dell,  $100;  Mrs.  Julianna  Hayes,  $100;  Miss 
Mary  Helm,  $25;  Mrs.  J.  B.  Cobb,  $50;  and 
Mrs.  C.  H.  Hall,  $50 — making  a  total  of  $425 
as  the  beginning  of  the  fund. 

Miss  Bennett  was  being  entertained  in  the 
home  of  Dr.  Thompson,  and  that  evening  his 
little  adopted  daughter  gave  her  a  silver  dollar, 
saying:  "Miss  Bennett,  I  have  waited  on  the  ta 
ble  since  you  came  and  have  earned  this  dollar. 
I  heard  you  talk  about  how  Jesus  went  about 
doing  good,  and  I  want  to  be  like  him.  I  am 
giving  you  my  dollar  to  help  you  build  the 
training  school."  This  was  seed  planted  that 
brought  forth  many  hundredfold  as  the  story 
of  the  little  girl's  gift  was  told. 

On  the  way  home  from  Little  Rock,  Miss 
Bennett  visited  a  friend  in  St.  Louis  and  while 


there  was  urged  to  call  upon  one  of  the  shut- 
in  saints,  who  had  been  confined  to  her  bed  for 
long  years.  In  telling  of  this  visit,  she  says: 
"While  in  this  upper  chamber  I  told  her  the 
story  of  Little  Rock  and  my  thought  of  a 
training  school.  Putting  her  hand  feebly 
under  her  pillow,  she  took  out  a  small  paper 
and  drew  from  it  a  five-dollar  gold  piece,  say 
ing:  'I  have  been  waiting  for  the  Lord  to 
show  me  where  he  wanted  me  to  put  this,  and 
now  I  know.' ' 

This,  too,  was  a  seed  corn  that  brought  in 
a  bountiful  harvest. 

When  Miss  Bennett  reached  home  there 
were  two  letters  awaiting  her,  one  containing 
a  check  from  a  gentleman  in  North  Carolina 
and  another  from  Mrs.  Trueheart,  asking  that 
she  attend  with  her  a  camp  meeting  which  was 
being  conducted  at  Park  Hill  Campground  by 
the  Rev.  Sam  Jones.  She  responded  to  the  call 
and  went  at  once.  At  Mr.  Jones's  earnest 
solicitation  she  presented  her  cause  to  a  large 
audience.  After  she  had  finished  he  arose  and 
pledged  $500  for  Mrs.  Jones.  He  then  said: 
"Miss  Bennett,  you  and  Mrs.  Trueheart  sit 
down  here  and  let  the  people  bring  you  their 
money."  They  crowded  forward — men,  wom 
en,  and  children — pledging  from  twenty-five 


cents  to  twenty-five  dollars  annually  for  five 
years,  until  they  had  given  more  than  $1,000. 


Offers  began  to  come  from  various  cities 
bidding  for  the  location  of  the  school.  Lou 
isville,  Ky.,  made  the  first  formal  offer:  a 
rented  house  in  which  to  open  at  once  and  the 
promise  of  $15,000  and  ground  within  a  year. 
St.  Louis  offered  a  furnished  house,  rent  free 
for  five  years,  with  promise  of  enlargement 
for  future  use.  Other  offers  came  from  Mar 
tha  Washington  College,  Abingdon,  Va. ;  Cen 
tral  College,  Lexington,  Mo.,  by  Dr.  Pal- 
more;  Asheville,  N.  C,  through  Mr.  and  Mrs. 
Ray;  and  the  Nashville  College  for  Young 
Ladies,  through  Drs.  Kelley  and  Price.  These 
kind  offers  each  received  due  consideration, 
but  the  proposal  which  seemed  most  worth 
while  came  through  a  letter  from  Mrs.  Isa 
bella  Hendrix,  mother  of-  Bishop  Hendrix,  and 
a  member  of  the  Woman's  Board  of  Foreign 
Missions,  saying  that  she  had  had  a  conversa 
tion  with  Dr.  Nathan  Scarritt,  of  Kansas  City, 
in  which  he  had  made  an  offer  of  both  money 
and  land.  Miss  Bennett  went  at  once  to  Kan 
sas  City.  She  says  of  this  visit:  "On  reach 
ing  Kansas  City  I  was  met  at  the  train  by  Dr. 


Scarritt  and  was  a  guest  in  his  home  for  more 
than  a  week.  On  Sabbath  evening  Dr.  Scarritt, 
Mrs.  Scarritt,  and  myself  walked  over  to  the 
beautiful  hilltop  overlooking  the  bluffs  of  the 
Missouri  River.  While  standing  there,  he 
said  to  me:  'If  you  like  this,  I  will  give  you 
here  whatever  you  think  is  necessary  for  the 
establishment  of  the  school.'  Later  he  said:  'I 
will  give  you  $25,000  provided  you  raise  a 
like  amount  for  the  erection  of  the  building.' ' 


The  Executive  Committee  of  the  Woman's 
Board  of  Foreign  Missions  accepted  this  gift 
and  it  became  a  great  impetus  to  the  enter 
prise.  Miss  Bennett  toured  the  Church,  pre 
senting  the  challenge  to  the  people  to  make 
good  the  promised  gift.  She  visited  many  of 
Sam  Jones's  meetings,  where  thousands  of  dol 
lars  jwere  subscribed.  Churches  were  also 
visited,  many  of  the  invitations  coming  from 
the  missionary  women  themselves.  Miss  Ben 
nett's  request  was  always  for  just  a  few  min 
utes  of  time  at  the  close  of  the  service.  In 
describing  her  experiences,  she  says:  "Wheth 
er  I  talked  to  individuals  or  audiences,  gifts  of 
money  and  subscriptions  were  made.  At 
Greenville  and  Meridian,  Miss.,  as  I  sat  on  the 


edge  of  the  platform,  men  and  women  came 
up,  took  off  their  watches  and  other  jewelry, 
and  with  money  and  subscriptions  to  the 
amount  of  more  than  $3,000  poured  them  into 
my  lap." 

Mrs.  M.  D.  Wightman  was  asked  to  assist 
Miss  Bennett  and  was  appointed  Associate 
Agent.  She  worked  with  earnestness  and  zeal 
in  the  southeastern  Conferences  and  secured 
something  more  than  $11,000  of  the  funds 
turned  over  for  building  and  endowment.  In 
less  than  two  years  the  full  amount  was  se 
cured  for  the  erection  of  the  building. 

The  difficulties  and  the  triumph  of  the  work 
are  set  forth  in  an  extract  from  an  address 
made  by  Dr.  W.  H.  Potter  at  the  time  of  the 
laying  of  the  corner  stone: 

The  originator  of  the  enterprise  was  appointed 
Financial  Agent  to  raise  the  funds  with  which  to  start 
it.  There  was  not  a  dollar  in  the  treasury ;  the  mind 
of  the  Church  respecting  it  was  not  known ;  a  female 
fiscal  agent  with  connectional  relations  was  a  thing 
unknown  to  the  Church ;  yet  with  a  heart  strong  in  the 
Lord  and  in  the  conviction  of  a  great  duty  she  went 
forward.  Her  success  under  such  circumstances  has 
been  so  phenomenal  as  to  convict  of  blindness  those 
who  could  not  see  that  God  was  with  her.  Miss  Belle 
H.  Bennett,  of  Richmond,  Ky.,  the  Financial  Agent, 
deserves  and  will  receive  the  thanks  of  this  and  many 
future  generations  for  the  inception  and  progress  of 


this  great  work.  No  doubt  she  has  already  received 
the  approval  of  her  own  conscience  and  her  Lord.  Miss 
Bennett  has  had  many  noble  and  worthy  coadjutors, 
too  many  to  be  named  here ;  but  her  singular  strength 
of  purpose,  her  simple  faith,  and  quiet  courage  gave 
heart  and  hope  to  them  all. 


At  the  very  height  of  success  opposition 
arose,  opposition  so  strong  that  it  seemed  for 
a  time  that  the  enterprise  would  be  wrecked. 
Some  of  the  men  in  official  position  opposed 
it  bitterly,  and  many  of  the  women  feared 
lest  its  phenomenal  success  would  be  the  un 
doing  of  the  work  which  was  already  being 
carried  on  in  the  mission  fields.  The  gift  of 
Dr.  Scarritt  had  already  been  accepted  and 
the  money  raised  to  meet  its  requirements,  but 
now  the  question  arose  as  to  the  right  to  es 
tablish  such  a  school  under  the  constitution  of 
the  Woman's  Board  of  Foreign  Missions. 
The  Board  met  in  St.  Louis  in  May,  1890,  dur 
ing  the  session  of  the  General  Conference. 
Dr.  Scarritt  was  present  and  was  invited  to 
speak.  He  told  with  emotion  and  tenderness 
the  story  of  God's  dealing  with  him.  He  said 
that  while  alone,  walking  about  upon  his  estate, 
a  voice  seemed  to  speak  to  his  soul,  saying: 
"Why  don't  you  give  this  land  to  the  Worn- 


an's  Missionary  Society  for  the  training 
school?"  He  had  obeyed  this  voice  and  great 
ly  regretted  the  delay.  At  this  time  he  re 
newed  the  gift;  and  to  remove  the  legal  bar 
riers  a  memorial  was  sent  to  the  General 
Conference,  with  the  result  that  the  constitu 
tion  was  so  amended  as  to  authorize  the  es 
tablishment  of  the  school.  On  May  21,  1890, 
the  Board  met  behind  closed  doors  with  the 
expressed  intention,  on  the  part  of  some,  to 
ignore  all  previous  action  in  regard  to  the 
school.  Dr.  Scarritt  had  gone  home  because 
of  his  serious  illness  and  Bishop  Hendrix  was 
acting  as  his  representative.  After  a  heated  dis 
cussion,  a  resolution  was  unanimously  adopt 
ed  accepting  the  gift  of  Dr.  Scarritt.  At  the 
same  time  Dr.  Scarritt,  Rev.  W.  B.  Palmore, 
and  Miss  Belle  H.  Bennett  were  appointed  a 
building  committee  with  authorization  to  pro 
ceed  as  rapidly  as  finances  \vere  available. 

The  news  of  the  acceptance  of  the  gift  was 
sent  at  once  by  telegram  to  Dr.  Scarritt.  The 
Board  adjourned  that  night,  and  on  the  fol 
lowing  day  a  message  came  acknowledging  the 
receipt  of  the  telegram  and  announcing  that 
Dr.  Scarritt  had  died  on  that  morning  (May 
22).  A  special  meeting  was  called  and  reso 
lutions  passed  expressing  sympathy  and  af- 


fection.  At  the  same  time  the  projected  train 
ing  school  was  named  in  honor  of  its  gener 
ous  benefactor. 

Two  years  later,  in  1892,  the  Woman's 
Board  of  Foreign  Missions  met  in  Lexington, 
Ky.  The  progress  of  the  school  had  been  such 
that  this  became  a  time  of  great  jubilation. 
The  corner  stone  had  been  laid  in  July  of  1891 
with  due  ceremony,  and  now  the  beautiful 
building  was  completed,  and  its  doors  were 
to  be  opened  in  September  of  that  year. 

Miss  Laura  Haygood  had  been  elected  Prin 
cipal  of  the  school,  but  had  refused  to  be  re 
leased  from  her  work  in  China.  In  the  mat 
ter  of  choosing  the  principal,  however,  as  in 
that  of  the  establishment  of  the  school,  there 
was  an  unmistakable  evidence  of  divine  guid 
ance,  for  God's  choice  lay  in  another  direction. 
Miss  Maria  Layng  Gibson  was  at  that  time 
Principal  of  a  high-grade  private  school  for 
young  women  in  Covington,  Ky.,  but  at  the 
earnest  solicitation  of  the  leaders  of  the  new 
enterprise  she  consented  to  leave  her  own 
prosperous  institution  and  become  the  head  of 
the  Training  School.  At  this  Lexington  meet 
ing  the  Board  of  Managers  nominated  her  as 
Principal  and  Miss  Elizabeth  Holding,  of  the 
Chicago  Training  School,  as  Bible  teacher. 


These  nominations  were  approved  by  the 
Woman's  Board.  Miss  Emma  D.  Cushman 
was  elected  Superintendent  of  Nurses  for  the 
hospital  department. 

Notwithstanding  the  phenomenal  success  of 
the  enterprise,  the  Principal  must  have  felt, 
as  she  entered  upon  her  new  task,  that  the 
battie  had  only  begun.  The  building  was 
beautiful  and  commodious,  but  for  the  most 
part  it  was  still  unfurnished.  September  was 
not  far  distant,  and  no  effort  had  been  made 
to  secure  a  student  body.  In  November,  1892, 
after  speaking  of  the  success  that  had  crowned 
their  first  efforts,  Miss  Gibson  writes:  "And 
yet — and  yet,  the  one  thing  lacking  is  students. 
There  has  been  no  lack  of  applications,  but 
our  educational  standard  is  high,  and  many 
have  failed  to  meet  the  requirements." 

The  school  was  dedicated  on  September  14, 
1892.  Preliminary  services  were  held  in  Mel- 
rose  Church,  addresses  being  delivered  by 
Bishop  Galloway,  Bishop  Hendrix,  Dr.  George 
Halley,  by  Miss  Elizabeth  Holding,  Bible 
teacher,  and  by  the  Principal.  After  the  serv 
ices  the  entire  congregation  proceeded  to  the 
beautiful  memorial  chapel  of  the  Training 
School,  where  the  building  was  delivered  to 
Bishop  Hendrix,  President  of  the  Board  of 


Managers,  by  Judge  E.  L.  Scarritt,  on  behalf 
of  the  Trustees. 

Concerning  the  first  opening,  a  member  of 
the  school  writes  under  the  above  date: 

We  had  a  beautiful  day  for  our  opening.  The  sun 
shone  warm  and  bright,  fairly  enticing  people  out  of 
doors.  Melrose  Church  was  crowded.  The  addresses 
were  delivered  in  the  church ;  and  then  the  friends  came 
over  to  our  beautiful  chapel,  where  the  dedicatory  serv 
ices  were  held.  Hundreds  of  people  viewed  the  build 
ing  after  the  services,  and  about  sixty  took  lunch  with 
us.  Last  night  we  were  filled  with  dismay,  for  we 
really  feared  we  should  open  without  a  single  student ; 
but  about  eight  o'clock  Miss  Tina  Tucker,  from  Ken 
tucky,  arrived.  This  morning,  just  before  we  started 
for  the  church,  two  others  came — Miss  Sharp,  from 
Missouri,  and  Miss  Irene  Shaw,  from  Texas.  Our 
spirits  rose  accordingly,  and  when  we  mustered  the 
family  and  started  for  the  church  we  felt  that  we  made 
quite  a  showing.  We  had  often  heard  that  "three  was 
a  crowd,"  but  had  never  had  such  a  practical  illustra 
tion  of  it  before.  Our  pretty  guest  chamber,  furnished 
by  the  ladies  of  Centenary  Church,  Kansas  City,  was 
occupied  last  night  by  our  dear  Miss  Bennett  and  her 
efficient  secretary,  Miss  Crook.  These  ladies,  with  Miss 
Lucinda  Helm,  arrived  yesterday  morning.  We  are 
without  gas,  owing  to  some  misunderstanding  about 
laying  the  pipes.  We  have  a  number  of  lamps,  but  not 
a  sufficient  number  to  dispel  the  darkness  in  these  great 
halls.  Of  course,  Miss  Bennett  could  not  wait  until 
morning  before  viewing  the  building.  We  all  followed 
in  the  wake  as  she  and  Miss  Gibson  made  the  grand 
tour ;  and,  although  our  lamp  had  a  good  Rochester 
burner,  yet  it  made  little  impres'sion  on  the  darkness 


around,  and  our  procession  was  rather  ghostly.  The 
day  was  a  full  one,  and  we  were  all  tired  at  supper ; 
nevertheless,  we  went  to  prayer  meeting  at  Melrose  and 
felt  that  it  must  be  a  good  omen  for  us  to  spend  the 
first  evening  of  our  school  life  at  a  prayer  meeting. 

The  enrollment  in  the  Bible  department 
that  year  numbered  five  resident  students  and 
seven  from  Kansas  City  and  vicinity. 

The  first  ten  years  marked  a  steady  growth 
in  the  life  and  usefulness  of  the  school.  In  the 
spring  of  1894  the  first  commencement  ex 
ercises  were  held.  Miss  Layona  Glenn,  under 
appointment  to  Brazil,  was  the  first  graduate 
from  the  Bible  department.  Miss  Clara  Ste- 
ger  and  Miss  Ella  R.  Coffey,  after  one  year  of 
training,  were  sent  to  China  that  year.  At  the 
close  of  the  ten  years  the  school  had  repre 
sentatives  in  the  mission  fields  as  follows: 
Brazil,  n;  China,  13;  Mexico,  8;  Cuba,  10; 
Korea,  3;  Japan,  I. 

The  nurse-training  department,  too,  had 
given  ministry  at  home  and  abroad.  The  total 
number  of  patients  receiving  treatment  during 
that  period  numbered  1,617,  and  thirty-five 
nurses  had  been  graduated. 

In  a  report  dated  1902  Miss  Gibson  says: 

Three  representatives  of  the  nurse-training  depart 
ment  are  engaged  in  foreign  work.  Miss  Helen  Me- 


Intosh,  who  came  from  Scotland  to  enter  this  school 
for  training  as  a  missionary  nurse,  after  graduation 
offered  herself  to  the  Presbyterian  Board  and  was  ap 
pointed  to  India  as  superintendent  of  a  hospital.  An 
other  graduate,  Miss  Mary  Wood,  of  Virginia,  is  in 
the  mission  field  as  the  wife  of  the  Rev.  J.  A.  G.  Ship 
ley,  a  missionary  under  the  General  Board  of  Missions 
of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  South.  A  notable 
representative  is  our  former  superintendent  of  nurses, 
Miss  Emma  D.  Cushman,  now  in  charge  of  a  hospital 
at  Talas,  Csesarea.  While  a  young  girl  she  was  con 
verted,  and,  being  much  interested  in  missions  and  very 
desirous  of  becoming  a  nurse,  she  made  a  vow  that  if 
God  would  open  the  way  for  her  to  secure  training 
she  would  devote  her  life  to  him  as  a  missionary  nurse. 
The  way  opened  almost  immediately,  and  she  entered 
the  hospital,  where  she  graduated.  When  her  training 
was  ended,  however,  she  was  not  ready  to  fulfill  her 
vow.  Ten  years  later  the  call  of  God  came  again ;  and 
she  made  haste  to  answer,  resigned  her  position  as  Su 
perintendent  of  our  hospital  department,  and  sailed 
from  New  York  on  the  steamer  Majestic  on  July  26, 

Early  in  its  history  the  Training  School  ex 
perienced  an  overwhelming  sorrow  in  the 
death  of  Miss  Elizabeth  Holding,  who  had  al 
ready  proved  herself  a  great  teacher  of  the 
Word  and  a  friend  of  every  student  in  the 
school.  Miss  Effie  Thompson  was  elected  to 
the  Bible  chair,  but  served  only  one  year,  when 
Mrs.  Mary  Lipscomb  Hargrove  began  a  term 
of  service  which  continued  for  twenty  years. 

In  1896  Miss  Bennett  and  Mrs.  Wightman 


resigned  as  agents  of  the  Training  School. 
Miss  Bennett  transferred  the  books  from  her 
office  at  Richmond,  Ky.,  to  the  training  school, 
and  Miss  Elizabeth  Billingsley  was  elected  by 
the  Board  of  Managers  to  take  charge  of  these 
accounts.  This  position  she  continued  to  hold 
until  1919,  at  which  time  she  retired  because 
of  ill  health. 


In  1902  the  deaconess  office  was  authorized 
by  the  General  Conference,  and  the  Woman's 
Board  of  Home  Missions  entered  upon  a  new 
era  in  its  work  of  city  missions.  Large  num 
bers  of  home  mission  candidates  were  present 
ing  themselves  to  the  school  for  training.  This 
necessitated  the  closing  of  the  hospital  depart 
ment  in  1905  in  order  to  make  room  for  the 
enlarged  Bible  department. 

In  1903  the  chair  of  sociology  was  estab 
lished,  to  which  Miss  Mabel  Katherine  Howell 
was  elected.  This  was  a  new  departure  for  the 
school  and  naturally  led  to  the  enlargement  of 
its  usefulness. 

In  1910  Miss  Henrietta  Libby  Gay  was 
elected  as  teacher  of  religious  pedagogy,  and 
in  1916  Miss  Ida  Shaffer  was  appointed  to 
teach  Portuguese  to  applicants  expecting  to 


work  in  Brazil.  Later,  the  scope  of  Miss  Shaf 
fer's  duties  were  enlarged  by  her  appointment 
to  the  chair  of  Church  history.  Thus  was 
completed  for  the  students  a  thorough  and 
rounded  curriculum  including  courses  in  Bible, 
sociology,  Church  history,  religious  peda 
gogy,  and  training  in  practical  efficiency. 

In  the  years  which  followed,  the  school  en 
joyed  a  season  of  unusual  prosperity,  sending 
to  both  the  home  and  foreign  fields  larger 
numbers  of  workers  than  ever  before.  In 
1915,  however,  it  passed  through  a  great  finan 
cial  loss  which  threatened  its  very  existence. 
In  1895  Miss  Bennett  and  Mrs.  Wightman 
turned  into  the  hands  of  the  treasurer  of  the 
Board  of  Managers  $52,394.58  for  the  endow 
ment  fund.  The  Conferences  added  to  this 
fund  by  collecting  $20,000  for  a  chair  named 
in  honor  of  Miss  Belle  H.  Bennett,  and  eleven 
lectureships  at  $5,000  each.  There  were,  in 
addition,  nineteen  endowed  scholarships  and 
a  small  Student  Loan  Fund.* 

The  interest  on  these  funds  was  used  for  the 
payment  of  teachers'  salaries  and  for  the 
maintenance  of  the  students  preparing  for  mis- 

*See  pages  253-55  for  list  of  Lectureships  and 


sionary  service.  The  major  part  of  this  total 
endowment  was  lost  through  embezzelment 
on  the  part  of  a  man  to  whom  these  funds 
had  been  intrusted  in  all  good  faith.  This 
was  a  great  disaster;  for,  while  some  appro 
priation  was  being  made  by  the  Council,  the 
school  was  largely  dependent  upon  its  vested 
funds.  It  seemed,  for  the  time,  that  the  insti 
tution  must  close;  but  friends  in  Kansas  City 
and  vicinity  came  to  the  rescue  and  provided 
a  sustentation  fund,  which  enabled  the  school 
to  continue  until  the  close  of  the  scholastic 
year.  This  was  a  practical  token  of  the  ap 
preciation  of  the  worth  of  the  school  to  its 
neighbors.  At  the  Council  of  that  year  action 
was  taken  which  made  good  the  loss  of  the 
interest  accruing  from  the  endowment  fund. 

The  news  had  gone  abroad  in  some  quarters 
that  the  endowment  was  lost  and  that  the 
school  would  close.  About  this  time,  also,  the 
educational  standards  for  missionaries  were 
raised,  and,  in  addition  to  this,  the  Council  de 
cided  to  consider  all  scholarships  merely  as  a 
loan  to  the  students  using  them.  This  com 
bination  of  circumstances  made  the  two  years 
which  followed  the  most  trying  and  difficult 
in  all  the  history  of  the  school.  The  student 
body  was  diminished  to  almost  half  of  that 


which  it  had  formerly  been.  However,  the 
public  learned  that  the  Council  was  standing 
solidly  behind  the  school ;  the  Council  came  to 
see  the  lack  of  wisdom  in  sending  its  mis 
sionaries  out  burdened  with  a  heavy  debt  and 
changed  its  ruling  concerning  the  use  of  schol 
arships.  With  the  removal  of  these  hindrances 
and  the  new  call  throughout  the  Church  for 
life  service  recruits,  the  institution  soon  en 
tered  upon  a  renewed  and  enlarged  life  of  use 


The  twenty-fifth  anniversary,  which  was 
celebrated  at  the  commencement  season  of 
1917,  was  a  crowning  event  in  its  history.  The 
occasion  was  marked  by  the  presentation  of  a 
beautiful  pageant  called  the  "Spirit  of  Scar- 
ritt."  In  the  prologue  the  Spirit  of  Scarritt 
gave  a  short  history  of  the  origin  and  work  of 
the  school.  This  was  followed  in  Part  II  by 
a  representation  of  the  life  and  work  of  the 
institution,  while  Part  III  presented  the  "Spir 
it"  of  Scarritt  through  the  lives  of  its  gradu 
ates  serving  in  the  mission  field. 

The  alumnae  on  Alumnae  Day  paid  tribute 
to  the  great  moving  spirit  which  had  for  twen 
ty-five  years  guided  and  molded  the  school, 


making  its  name  honored  throughout  the  earth. 
Miss  Gibson  had  from  the  beginning  poured 
out  her  life  in  loving,  sacrificial  service.  Her 
deep  personal  interest  in  every  woman  who 
left  the  school  had  caused  her  influence  to  reach 
throughout  the  bounds  of -the  entire  Church  at 
home  and  on  the  foreign  field ;  and  at  this  time 
hundreds  of  her  thousand  daughters  now  gird 
ling  the  globe  with  their  beautiful  ministry 
paid  homage  by  their  presence,  letter,  or  tele 
gram  both  to  their  Alma  Mater  and  to  her 
whom  they  counted  as  their  spiritual  mother. 
As  an  expression  of  appreciation  she  was  pre 
sented  with  a  beautiful  silver  plate  upon  which 
was  engraved  a  picture  of  the  building,  and  a 
silver  sandwich  plate  given  by  a  group  of 
nurses,  former  graduates  from  the  hospital. 
Another  happy  surprise  came  to  her  with  the 
uncovering  of  three  hundred  bright  silver  dol 
lars,  a  love  offering  of  the  alumnae.  This 
amount,  \vhich  was  afterwards  increased,  she 
accepted  as  a  trust  fund  to  be  used  for  some 
future  need  of  the  school. 


In  1916  Miss  Mabel  Howell,  teacher  of 
sociology,  was  elected  by  the  Council  to  the 
office  of  the  Executive  Secretarv  of  the  Ori- 


ental  Fields ;  and  the  Bible  teacher,  Mrs.  Mary 
Lipscomb  Hargrove,  was  elected  to  represent 
the  Woman's  Missionary  Council  as  their  Cen 
tenary  Secretary.  Miss  Gibson,  at  this  same 
time,  asked  to  be  released  from  the  increasing 
executive  burdens  and  offered  her  resignation. 
This  made  faculty  changes  necessary.  These 
circumstances,  together  with  the  new  demand 
for  the  new  age,  led  to  steps  on  the  part  of  the 
Council  for  the  enlargment  of  plans  concerning 
the  school.  More  and  more  it  was  becoming 
urgent  to  secure  a  force  large  enough  to  keep 
the  institution  before  the  Church;  and  to  this 
end,  Dr.  Ed  F.  Cook,  formerly  Foreign  Sec 
retary  for  the  Board  of  Missions,  was  elected 
President,  while  Miss  Maria  Layng  Gibson 
was  retained  as  Principal.  Miss  Sophia  Gleim 
succeeded  Miss  Howell  as  teacher  of  sociology 
for  one  year  only,  when  Prof.  A.  M.  Tra- 
wick,  who  had  had  a  long  and  valuable  experi 
ence  in  this  special  field,  was  elected  to  the 
place.  Miss  Mabel  Roberta  Carter  was  elect 
ed  to  the  Bible  chair,  and  in  1919  Miss  Mary 
Ora  Durham  was  appointed  a  member  of  the 
faculty  as  director  of  practical  methods.  At 
the  beginning  of  this  new  era,  the  school  al 
ready  numbered  four  hundred  and  thirty  grad 
uates,  and  three  hundred  and  twelve  students 


were  serving  actively  in  every  mission  field 
that  had  been  entered  by  the  Church.  In  the 
year  1919-20  an  enrollment  of  seventy-one  stu 
dents  was  reached.  At  the  meeting  of  the 
Board  of  Directors  that  year  plans  were  pro 
jected  for  the  securing  of  a  charter  which 
would  give  to  the  institution  college  rank, 
thereby  granting  it  the  power  to  confer  de 

The  new  President,  Dr.  Ed  F.  Cook,  says 
concerning  the  larger  program  and  the  for 
ward  look: 

The  women  of  the  missionary  societies  have  become 
responsible  for  the  ministry  of  our  Methodism  to  the 
women  of  seven  great  mission  fields  and  for  the  greater 
share  of  the  Church's  home  mission  program.  We 
would  urge  upon  their  attention,  therefore,  the  place 
of  fundamental  importance  held  by  the  Scarritt  Bible 
and  Training  School,  which  alone  among  the  institu 
tions  of  Southern  Methodism  provides  that  highly  spe 
cialized,  postgraduate  training  which  will  enable  our 
missionaries  at  home  and  abroad  to  fill  acceptably  a 
place  in  the  missionary  enterprise  of  to-morrow.  In 
ever-increasing  numbers  the  young  women  of  the 
Church,  under  the  impulse  of  the  new  call  to  sacri 
ficial  service,  will  respond  to  the  demand  of  the  Church 
for  workers.  The  school  is  now  full  to  capacity.  The 
Council  must  enlarge  the  plant  and  the  program  in 
order  to  meet  the  insistent  demands  already  crowding 
upon  us. 

For  the  glorious  service  rendered  in  the  past  by  the 
Scarritt  Bible  and  Training  School  we  are  truly  grate- 


ful.  A  new  day,  however,  has  dawned.  The  new 
world  is  bringing  a  new  challenge  to  the  womanhood 
of  America  through  a  call  to  greater  service.  We 
must  face  the  future  and  prepare  for  even  greater 
things.  The  first  requisite  is  an  adequate  supply  of 
missionaries  well  prepared  for  the  more  difficult  and 
exacting  tasks  awaiting  them  in  an  awakening  and 
tumultuous  world. 

The  Scarritt  Bible  and  Training  School,  enlarged, 
equipped,  and  builded  into  a  great  training  center,  is 
at  once  our  hope  and  the  answer  of  Southern  Meth 
odist  womanhood  to  the  challenge  of  the  new  day. 


The  Frances  Bumpass,  contributed  by  the  North 
Carolina  and  Western  North  Carolina  Conference  So 

The  Morgan  Calloway,  contributed  by  the  North 
Georgia  Conference  Society. 

The  Hannah  Lithgow,  contributed  by  the  daughters 
of  J.  S.  Lithgow,  Louisville,  Ky. 

The  Kavanaugh,  contributed  by  the  Louisville  Con 
ference  Society. 

The  Steven  Noland,  contributed  by  the  Kentucky 
Conference  Society. 

The  Bishop  W.  M.  Wightman,  contributed  by  the 
South  Carolina  Conference  Society. 

The  Stephen  Olin,  contributed  by  the  South  Caro 
lina  Conference  Society. 

The  Maria  D.  Wightman,  Woman's  Foregin  Mis 
sionary  Society. 

The  S.  C.  Trueheart,  Woman's  Foreign  Missionary 

The  Fannie  M.  Hitch,  contributed  by  the  South  Geor 
gia  Conference  Society. 


The  Musselman  Sisters,  contributed  by  Miss  Harriet 


The  Avis  Scholarship,  contributed  by  the  St.  Louis 
Conference  Society. 

The  Melisa  Baker  Scholarship,  contributed  by  the 
Baltimore  Conference  Society. 

The  Mary  A.  Bonnell  Scholarship,  contributed  by 
the  North  Georgia  Conference  Society. 

The  Harriett  Colquitt  Boring  Scholarship ,  con 
tributed  by  the  North  Georgia  Conference  Society. 

The  Alice  Culler  Cobb  Scholarship,  contributed  by 
the  South  Georgia  Conference  Society. 

The  Helen  Finlay  Scholarship,  contributed  by  the 
North  Mississippi  Conference  Society. 

The  Sam  Jones  Scholarship,  contributed  by  the  Ken 
tucky  Conference  Society. 

The  Virginia  K.  Johnson  Scholarship,  contributed 
by  the  North  Texas  Conference  Society. 

The  Fannie  Montague  Scholarship,  contributed  by 
the  Missouri  Conference  Society. 

The  Memorial  Scholarship,  contributed  by  friends 
in  many  Conferences. 

The  Weyman  Potter  Scholarship,  contributed  by  the 
South  Georgia  Conference  Society. 

The  Ellen  J.  Robinson  Scholarship,  contributed  by 
the  North  Texas  Confernce  Society. 

The  S.  Myra  Smith  Scholarship,  contributed  by  the 
North  Mississippi  Conference  Society. 

The  Tennessee  Scholarship,  contributed  by  the  Ten 
nessee  Conference  Society. 

The  Texas  Scholarship,  contributed  by  the  Texas 
Conference  Society. 

The  Carrie  Steele  Waterhouse  Scholarship,  con 
tributed  by  the  Holston  Conference  Society. 


The  Lula  G.  Watkins  Scholarship,  contributed  by 
the  Mississippi  Conference  Society. 

The  Houston-Steger  Scholarship,  contributed  by  Mr. 
and  Mrs.  W.  J.  Houston. 

The  Susan  N.  Jones  Scholarship,  contributed  by  the 
Southwest  Missouri  Conference  Society.